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Blunt trauma is the most common type of trauma in pregnancy, being caused mainly by road traffic accidents. Different mechanisms of injury give rise to a variety of injury patterns. Blunt forces commonly cause compression injuries, particularly laceration or fracture of solid organs. Sudden deceleration and consequent shearing forces cause avulsion of peritoneal attachments or arteries. Rapid increase in abdominal pressure, for example from a seat belt, can result in hollow viscus rupture or rib or pelvic fractures and cause laceration injuries.
We have found a class of circular radio objects in the Evolutionary Map of the Universe Pilot Survey, using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The objects appear in radio images as circular edge-brightened discs, about one arcmin diameter, that are unlike other objects previously reported in the literature. We explore several possible mechanisms that might cause these objects, but none seems to be a compelling explanation.
Griselda has always challenged the status of the human, even though critics have long sought to elucidate prized human characteristics through her behavior as wife, mother, and political subject. Despite these efforts, our moral investments in Griselda - quite literally, the ways we have sought to associate her with a host of social and moral prescriptions concerning subjectivity, femininity, maternity, and sovereignty - are confounded by her unyielding submission. Griselda is unfeeling, but she gains a horrible autonomy that critiques patriarchal tyranny. Griselda affirms women’s material investment in the household, but to do so she sacrifices all ethical bonds outside those mandated by her pre-marital pact with Walter. Griselda is transcendent, but she is alienated from a common humanity, much less Christianity. This chapter argues that Griselda is not an inhuman monster; rather, through The Clerk’s Tale, Chaucer imagines a different view of humanity, one engendered according to modes of virtue typically associated with women, including patience, pity, humility, steadfastness, and submission.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Precisely, the goal of the device is to initiate a friction force between the delivery system and the arterial vessel wall to both assure immediate stent deployment and prevent axial advancement of the stent-anchoring wire. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A prototype was constructed and its effectiveness of applying a friction force to a vessel wall was tested ex vivo using an LRX Plus Materials Testing Machine. Afterwards, the experimental performance of the device was compared to that of a finite element simulated model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The device demonstrated the ability to apply a friction force to the vessel wall to meet its objective. However, experimental values were consistently greater than those gathered from the simulation. Since the force prescribed by the device is minimal, future work includes increasing the force capabilities of the device and defining force requirements. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Upon further development and testing, this device can be implemented into endovascular neurosurgery to improve occlusion rates of intracranial aneurysms and reduce patient risk during these operations. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: I am pursuing intellectual property on this invention. I was careful not to describe the invention in too much detail in my abstract submission for this reason. This research is my thesis work, and I placed on one year embargo on it before it is published to give us time to sort out IP. I would like to be considered for inclusion in Translational Science 2020 if I am able to get IP on this work before publishing, which I expect will be the case. I have every intention of obtaining IP before the conference in April 2020.
Volume 16 continues this journal's tradition of publishing a wide range of studies from a variety of disciplines, and this particular volume boasts an unusually large number of images. The seven essays extend chronologically from the tenth through the sixteenth century and cover a wide geography: Scandinavia to Spain, with stops in England and the Low Countries.
M. Wendy Hennequin provides a detailed examination of lexical items for banners in the Old English Beowulf and argues that the prevalence of such terms in the poem attest to the cultural importance of banners for the society, as well as their poetic significance.
Maggie Kneen and Gale R. Owen-Crocker propose a fascinating new theory about the composition of the Bayeux Tapestry: They present evidence that multiple embroiderers used curved templates to draw the tapestry's design, which contributed to the uniform appearance.
Git Skoglund's essay opens a previously under-studied line of inquiry into the cultivation of hemp for textile production in medieval Scandinavia and provides an overview of conditions for and practices involved in growing hemp and its transformation into textiles.
By reading the character of Lady Mede (Piers Plowman) in the context of costume history, John Slefinger brings new depth to our understanding of her allegorical clothing and how fourteenth-century English authors used allegory generally.
By placing Spanish verdugados (farthingales) in their historical context and analyzing their use as political propaganda, Mark D. Johnston illustrates how Juana of Portugal's detractors used her clothing to demean her and turned their derision to the article of clothing itself.
John Bloch Friedman and Melanie Schuessler Bond provide an analysis of the sartorial imagery on a Dutch tabletop painting (attributed to Bosch) depicting the Seven Deadly Sins, arguing that the specific styles shown offer a complex message that conveys at once desirability and outmodedness, which comments upon fashion's fickleness.
In her article on her reconstruction of a sixteenth-century ceremonial crown from one of the London livery companies, Cynthia Jackson furnishes rich details about materials and techniques that the embroiderers used during the period to produce such ceremonial objects.
The following embroidered garlands have remained as treasured possessions of their respective companies. Their frequent inclusion in exhibitions and publications highlights their respected status as works of art. Their survival provides a unique opportunity to study the development of professional embroidery, to note the changes in threads and progression of techniques over a century, and, potentially, to stimulate discussion and generate hypotheses.
For example, the metal thread known as pearl purl was used sparingly in this period, with many crowns using only the smoother lizerine. This may suggest that cost was a factor in the choice of thread; it may indicate a development in the production of drawn wire for embroidery; or perhaps the availability of metal thread was restricted during the seventeenth century. The presence of pearl purl also may indicate that a repair or replacement has been made to the original object, the original thread type (likely lizerine) not being available. Comparison with other extant embroideries may help to identify further details with regard to the date of production of other items of embroidery: A close examination of the damaged Girdlers’ Company crown (see section IV below) indicates that lizerine was used for the most part, pearl purl being used only for emphasis, while the reproduction, made in the twentieth century, does not use any lizerine at all, pearl purl being used throughout. Further examination and documentation over a larger body of embroidered artefacts employing a prescribed methodology will help to develop a more accurate timeline of materials, design, technique, and perhaps even makers.
Description: All three crowns are identical on the outside and have two appliquéd motifs of a maiden holding grain—thought to be Thomas Becket's stepmother (fig. 7.11), eight appliquéd heads of grain (fig. 7.12), two appliqued shields of the company arms (fig. 7.13), and embroidered borders at top and bottom of purl and couched cord, on a crimson velvet ground. Garnished at upper and lower edges with applied filé lace. The dates “1628 : 1629” are embroidered on the inside of every one with the initials HL (Henry Leake), IH (John Heylin), or HB (Henry Bridges).
Arrayed in Splendour: Art, Fashion, and Textiles in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, edited by Christoph Brachmann (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2019). ISBN 978-2503579658. 264 pages, 119 illustrations (111 in color).
This collection, based on a series of lectures at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 2011 to 2013, seeks to elevate the status of historical textiles in the art world to the way they were perceived at their creation—as very expensive, meaningful, and luxurious pieces of art—compared to their typical current ranking as a secondary or low form of art. There is a good deal of research presented in these essays to support this position and hopefully convince nonbelievers to reconsider their outlook. Herein lies the rub. No one needs to convince me that textile art is high art. Whether the arguments would convince a skeptic is not a question I can answer.
The volume consists of an introduction, eight papers, a useful glossary, biographies of the authors, a comprehensive bibliography divided into primary and secondary sources, and an index. The editor's introduction lays out the argument for elevating historical textiles to a higher level of art, describes the recent work being done on the topic, and summarizes each essay.
Six of the papers address periods covered by this journal. Evelin Wetter assesses the significance and use of textiles in ecclesiastical consecration rites from the twelfth through fourteenth centuries, highlighting an extant “nun's crown.” Christoph Bachmann covers the funeral garments of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV (d. 1378) and family members, with particular emphasis on the iconography of the textiles. Lisa Monnas traces the evolution of cloth of gold in England and Italy from 1300 to 1550. Ulinka Rublack explores the use of fashion and color as the language of power and political symbolism at the 1530 Imperial Diet in Augsburg. Roberta Orsi Landini considers Cosimo I de’ Medici's use of textiles adorning both person and place in sixteenth-century Florence as a method to balance tradition with wealth and status while underscoring the ruler's power. Katja Schmitz-von Ledebur looks at the role of textiles, specifically tapestries, as exemplars of royal wealth and power, beginning with the Duke of Burgundy and continuing into the nineteenth century.
The Bayeux Tapestry is an eleventh-century embroidered frieze. It is 68.58 metres (225 feet) long in its present incomplete state and averages 50 centimetres (19.7 inches) in width, including borders. It is constructed of nine pieces of linen, the first two of which are much longer than the subsequent ones, joined by almost invisible seams so as to appear continuous. The Tapestry is world famous; it is listed on the international UNESCO Memory of the World Register, and it receives about 400,000 visitors per year in Bayeux, northern France, where it has been since at least the fifteenth century, probably much longer. However, it was probably designed in Canterbury, in southeast England, since its graphic style resembles the manuscript art of that area and it borrows images from manuscripts known to have been made and kept in Canterbury, in the libraries of St. Augustine's Abbey and Christ Church Cathedral (see below, pages 53–54); it references specific persons associated with and known patrons of St. Augustine’s; and it depicts Mont Saint-Michel, the previous home of the first Norman abbot of St. Augustine's (see below, page 56). It may also have been embroidered in southern England.
Every person viewing the Bayeux Tapestry is struck by its vitality. The assumption follows that the drawing which underlay the embroidery was spontaneous, freehand, each figure drawn as a complete entity before the artist moved on to the next. Yet, this is probably an illusion. As Richard Gameson has pointed out, the artists of eleventh-century Anglo-Saxon manuscripts who were creating images of more than one colour were already accustomed to working piecemeal, necessarily drawing a single image in different stints and changing ink in the course of its composition, though of course the act of creating a monochrome under-drawing might be more spontaneous and continuous. There is no trace of under-drawing for the original embroidery visible now; it may have been washed out. Commentators on the Tapestry tend to refer to “the artist” or “the designer” as if a single hand were responsible for the whole design and drawing.
Following psychiatric deinstitutionalization and changes in involuntary civil commitment laws, many individuals with severe mental disorders have been receiving mental health services through the back door, that is, the criminal justice system. Significant changes to the section of Criminal Code of Canada dealing with individuals with mental disorders have led to significant annual increases in the number of individuals declared Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD), many of whom are directed to civil psychiatric settings. The goal of the present study was to describe the psychosociocriminological and risk characteristics of individuals found NCRMD remanded to civil psychiatric hospitals (CPH) compared to a forensic psychiatric hospital (FPH). This study was conducted between October 2004 and August 2006 in the sole FPH of the province of Québec and two large CPH in the Montréal metropolitan area. The final sample for the current study consisted of 96 men: 60 from the FPH and 36 from the two CPH. Results indicate that individuals in both settings have similar psychosociocriminal profiles, including PCL-R scores, but that individuals in CPH have higher scores in the Risk subscale of the HCR-20 than do their counterparts in the FPH. This difference is due to a higher score on two items: exposure to destabilizing factors and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Results are discussed in terms of the need for civil psychiatric settings to implement risk assessment and management programs into their services, and the need for further research into forensic mental health services.
WHEN HELEN DAMICO chaired the session in which Elizabeth Coatsworth and I presented a research report at the Stanford ISAS in 1995, she not only took care of us on that occasion, but throughout the whole conference, and has continued to take an interest in us and our work ever since. As a wonderful scholar, and also a warm, kind person, she has greatly enriched the community of Anglo-Saxonists.
I share with Helen an interest in women's matters in relation to Anglo-Saxon culture and for some years I taught an undergraduate course at the University of Manchester (UK) called “Anglo-Saxon Woman.” I was both frustrated and amused to find how often in paperwork of both administrators and students my carefully worded title morphed into “Anglo-Saxon Women.” This paper discusses these concepts and that of Womanhood.
The Old English poem The Fortunes of Men begins:
Ful oft þæt gegongeð, mid godes meahtum,
þætte wer ond wif in woruld cennað
bearn mid gebyrdum ond mid bleom gyrwað
tennaþ ond tætaþ, oþþæt seo tid cymeð,
gegæþ gearrimum, þæt þa geongan leomu,
liffæstan leoþu, geloden weorþað.
Fergað swa ond feþað fæder ond modor,
giefað ond gierwaþ. God ana wat
Hwæt him weaxendum winter bringað!
It very often happens through God's powers that man and woman bring forth a child by birth into the world, and clothe him in colours and curb him and teach him until the time comes and it happens with the passing of the years that the young and lively limbs and members are mature. Thus his father and mother lead him along and guide his footsteps and provide for him and clothe him— but only God knows what the years will bring him as he grows up.
It comes as a welcome change to find an Old English poet acknowledging that a child is the product of a man and a woman to those of us steeped in heroic poetry in which men are regularly introduced as the sons of their fathers such as “afaran Eadwardes” (The Battle of Brunanburh), “Wulfstanes bearn” (The Battle of Maldon), or “Weoxstanes sunu” (Beowulf).
Marriage is perhaps so taken for granted in the Anglo-Saxon world that it does not have to be foregrounded.
It is appropriate to honor Robin Netherton this year as she steps down from her role as coeditor of the annual journal Medieval Clothing and Textiles (2006–), which she co-founded. It is unusual to offer a Festschrift of this kind to a person who has never occupied an academic post. Robin has never sought such a post. Our Introduction gives a brief account of her career as a journalist and editor, her family life, and the multiplicity of talents which has led to her being accepted as a leading scholar in the field of medieval and early modern dress and textiles. The individual tributes that precede each contribution clarify the importance of Robin's industry, thoroughness, and personal kindness. All of our contributors have, in the past, enjoyed the benefits of Robin's editing of their contributions to Medieval Clothing and Textiles. Most are also personal friends. The enthusiasm of the contributors to give something back to Robin has been remarkable throughout the process of commissioning, writing, and editing this book, which we offer to her with the admiration and love of us all.