The purpose of this paper is to bridge kinetic plasma descriptions and low-frequency single-fluid models. More specifically, the asymptotics leading to magnetohydrodynamic regimes starting from the Vlasov–Maxwell system are investigated. The analogy with the derivation, from the Vlasov–Poisson system, of a fluid representation for ions coupled to the Boltzmann relation for electrons is also outlined. The aim is to identify asymptotic parameters explaining the transitions from one microscopic description to a macroscopic low-frequency model. These investigations provide groundwork for the derivation of multi-scale numerical methods, model coupling or physics-based preconditioning.