To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Based on fourteen months of ethnographic research on the central money exchange bazaar in Kabul, Afghanistan—Sarai Shahzada—this article examines the micro-dynamics of legal change within a close-knit community in a fragile setting. For most of its history, the bazaar has been governed by informal legal norms. New state-building measures after 2001 led to increased efforts by the state to regulate the bazaar, causing money exchangers to initiate internal transformations to protect their autonomy. While scholarship generally argues that state coercion substitutes for private legal norms, this study shows the centrality of the state in consolidating the bazaar legal system. Exchangers have cast their non-state legal system in the image of the state by formalizing new operating rules that have introduced a management structure and dispute resolution forum. New state licenses have also helped to safeguard the boundaries of the bazaar. This article contributes to private governance and legal pluralism scholarship by revealing that a private community, even in a fragile state, may be capable of maintaining an autonomous non-state legal system not in spite of, but rather by depending on, the state.
To investigate the relative contributions of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia to movement stopping, we tested the optimum combination Stop Signal Reaction Time (ocSSRT) and median visual reaction time (RT) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) and compared values with data from healthy controls.
Thirty-five PD patients, 22 AD patients, and 29 healthy controls were recruited to this study. RT and ocSSRT were measured using a hand-held battery-operated electronic box through a stop signal paradigm.
The mean ocSSRT was found to be 309 ms, 368 ms, and 265 ms in AD, PD, and healthy controls, respectively, and significantly prolonged in PD compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001). The ocSSRT but not RT could separate AD from PD patients (p = 0.022).
Our data suggest that subcortical networks encompassing dopaminergic pathways in the basal ganglia play a more important role than cortical networks in movement-stopping. Combining ocSSRT with other putative indices or biomarkers of AD (and other dementias) could increase the accuracy of early diagnosis.
Radhabinod Pal, a judge at the Tokyo Tribunal, wrote a dissenting opinion absolving all the accused Japanese of the alleged crimes. In so doing, he advanced several conceptual and theoretical arguments to support his opinion. This paper focuses on the opinion of Pal concerning non-retroactivity of law, global democracy, imperialism, and victor's justice. The paper analyses his opinion in the light of contemporary developments and argues that his criticisms of the international criminal law regime and global justice are still relevant.
This article explores the creation, circulation, and regulation of informal trade credit or “ograyi” in Afghanistan. The practice of ograyi allows businesses to access short-term credit, from either their suppliers or third parties, to acquire specified goods. This paper provides an account of the non-legal practices that regulate ograyi transactions. Ograyi vitally depends on the development of trust between parties. Clientelism helps to maintain stable relationships that can offset market unpredictability. Widespread market norms and practices establish the general behaviour of participants. Parties also renegotiate the terms of the contract if circumstances make it impossible for the creditor to repay the loan in the agreed timeframe. Furthermore, bank credit remains largely unavailable or unappealing to many businesses, and the legal system provides limited recourse in the case of contractual breach. Thus, the non-legal practices regulating ograyi serve as a substitute for legal coercion.
This paper presents a new algorithm to navigate robots in dynamically cluttered environments. The proposed algorithm uses basic concepts of space attraction (hence the term Agoraphilic) to navigate robots through dynamic obstacles. The new algorithm in this paper is an advanced development of the original Agoraphilic navigation algorithm that was only able to navigate robots in static environments. The Agoraphilic algorithm does not look for obstacles (problems) to avoid but rather for a free space (solutions) to follow. Therefore, it is also described as an optimistic navigation algorithm. This algorithm uses only one attractive force created by the available free space. The free-space concept allows the Agoraphilic algorithm to overcome inherited challenges of general navigation algorithms. However, the original Agoraphilic algorithm has the limitation in navigating robots only in static, not in dynamic environments. The presented algorithm was developed to address this limitation of the original Agoraphilic algorithm. The new algorithm uses a developed object tracking module to identify the time-varying free spaces by tracking moving obstacles. The capacity of the algorithm was further strengthened by the new prediction module. Future space prediction allowed the algorithm to make decisions considering future growing/diminishing free spaces. This paper also includes a bench-marking study of the new algorithm compared with a recently published APF-based algorithm under a similar operating environment. Furthermore, the algorithm was validated based on experimental tests and simulation tests.
Monozoic tapeworms (Caryophyllidea) are dominant components of parasite communities of suckers (Catostomidae) in North America, with Biacetabulum Hunter, 1927 representing one of the more species-rich genera. Molecular (28S rDNA) and morphological (including scanning electron microscopy and histology) evaluation of newly collected tapeworms from different fish hosts revealed the existence of four similar (and three closely related) species of Biacetabulum. These four species differ from their congeners by having a long body (up to 48 mm long) with a very long, slender neck (its length represents ≥30% of total body length), a large, globular scolex with a prominent central acetabulum-like loculus on the dorsal and ventral sides, two pairs of shallow lateral loculi and a distinct, slightly convex apical disc, and a cirrus-sac that is situated between the anterior arms of the ovarian wings. Taken together, the morphological and molecular data and the host associations of these species provide evidence of their host specificity. Biacetabulum isaureae n. sp. occurs in notch clip redhorse, Moxostoma collapsum, in South Carolina (USA), B. longicollum n. sp. in silver redhorse, Moxostoma anisurum (type host), and golden redhorse, M. erythrurum, in Manitoba (Canada) and West Virginia (USA), B. overstreeti n. sp. in a spotted sucker, Minytrema melanops, in Mississippi, and B. hypentelii n. sp. in northern hogsucker, Hypentelium nigricans, in Tennessee (USA). The new species differ from each other in the number of postovarian vitelline follicles, the posterior extent of preovarian vitelline follicles and relative size of the cirrus sac.
A 59-year-old, right-hand-dominant man presented to the emergency department complaining that he could not move his right foot. Over the past month his right leg had become progressively weaker. He had difficulty climbing stairs and was frequently tripping over his right foot, which had resulted in more than one serious fall. During this period he felt a sensation of muscle tightness and frequent cramps in his right posterior thigh and lower leg.
A new nematode species, Raphidascaris mundeswariensis n. sp. (Raphidascarididae), is described from male and female specimens found in the intestines of the mudskipper Apocryptes bato (Hamilton, 1822) (Gobiidae) from the Mundeswari River of West Bengal, India. This species is distinguished from its congeners by 214–255-μm-long spicules, 14 pairs of preanal papillae of two markedly different sizes, one pair of adanal papillae, six pairs of postanal papillae and the absence of lateral alae. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene place the new species in a clade containing Raphidascaris gigi, Raphidascaris lophii, Raphidascaris longispicula and two species of Hysterothylacium. The molecular analyses also corroborate results of previous studies that have found Raphidascaris and Hysterothylacium to be paraphyletic. The finding of R. mundeswariensis in A. bato is the first Raphidascaris species described from a mudskipper anywhere.
Three potentially competing bear species inhabit tropical Asia: the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Sun bears (30–80 kg), the smallest species of bear in the world, are about half the size of black bears (65–150 kg) and sloth bears (55–145 kg). What factors generate the separation of sloth bears geographically from black and sun bears? What factors facilitate the extensive sympatry of black bears and sun bears? How are these patterns structured by evolutionary history and competition between bear species, and what mechanisms facilitate their coexistence or maintain their separation? Has current forest loss and degradation benefited one species over another? If so, has interspecific competition played a part? These questions are the focus of this chapter.
Diverse risk factors intercede the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted this retrospective cohort study with a cohort of 1016 COVID-19 patients diagnosed in May 2020 to identify the risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality outcomes. Data were collected by telephone-interview and reviewing records using a questionnaire and checklist. The study identified morbidity and mortality risk factors on the 28th day of the disease course. The majority of the patients were male (64.1%) and belonged to the age group 25–39 years (39.4%). Urban patients were higher in proportion than rural (69.3% vs. 30.7%). Major comorbidities included 35.0% diabetes mellitus (DM), 28.4% hypertension (HTN), 16.6% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 7.8% coronary heart disease (CHD). The morbidity rate (not-cured) was 6.0%, and the mortality rate (non-survivor) was 2.5%. Morbidity risk factors included elderly (AOR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.31–4.99), having comorbidity (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.83–2.47), and smokeless tobacco use (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI = 0.84–5.61). The morbidity risk was higher with COPD (RR = 2.68), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (RR = 3.33) and chronic liver disease (CLD) (RR = 3.99). Mortality risk factors included elderly (AOR = 7.56, 95% CI = 3.19–17.92), having comorbidity (AOR = 5.27, 95% CI = 1.88–14.79) and SLT use (AOR = 1.93, 95% CI = 0.50–7.46). The mortality risk was higher with COPD (RR = 7.30), DM (RR = 2.63), CHD (RR = 4.65), HTN (RR = 3.38), CKD (RR = 9.03), CLD (RR = 10.52) and malignant diseases (RR = 9.73). We must espouse programme interventions considering the morbidity and mortality risk factors to condense the aggressive outcomes of COVID-19.
Background: As more US hospitals report antibiotic utilization to the CDC, standardized antimicrobial administration ratios (SAARs) derived from patient care unit-based antibiotic utilization data will increasingly be used to guide local antibiotic stewardship interventions. Location-based antibiotic utilization surveillance data are often utilized given the relative ease of ascertainment. However, aggregating antibiotic use data on a unit basis may have variable effects depending on the number of clinical teams providing care. In this study, we examined antibiotic utilization from units at a tertiary-care hospital to illustrate the potential challenges of using unit-based antibiotic utilization to change individual prescribing. Methods: We used inpatient pharmacy antibiotic use administration records at an adult tertiary-care academic medical center over a 6-month period from January 2019 through June 2019 to describe the geographic footprints and AU of medical, surgical, and critical care teams. All teams accounting for at least 1 patient day present on each unit during the study period were included in the analysis, as were all teams prescribing at least 1 antibiotic day of therapy (DOT). Results: The study population consisted of 24 units: 6 ICUs (25%) and 18 non-ICUs (75%). Over the study period, the average numbers of teams caring for patients in ICU and non-ICU wards were 10.2 (range, 3.2–16.9) and 13.7 (range, 10.4–18.9), respectively. Units were divided into 3 categories by the number of teams, accounting for ≥70% of total patient days present (Fig. 1): “homogenous” (≤3), “pauciteam” (4–7 teams), and “heterogeneous” (>7 teams). In total, 12 (50%) units were “pauciteam”; 7 (29%) were “homogeneous”; and 5 (21%) were “heterogeneous.” Units could also be classified as “homogenous,” “pauciteam,” or “heterogeneous” based on team-level antibiotic utilization or DOT for specific antibiotics. Different patterns emerged based on antibiotic restriction status. Classifying units based on vancomycin DOT (unrestricted) exhibited fewer “heterogeneous” units, whereas using meropenem DOT (restricted) revealed no “heterogeneous” units. Furthermore, the average number of units where individual clinical teams prescribed an antibiotic varied widely (range, 1.4–12.3 units per team). Conclusions: Unit-based antibiotic utilization data may encounter limitations in affecting prescriber behavior, particularly on units where a large number of clinical teams contribute to antibiotic utilization. Additionally, some services prescribing antibiotics across many hospital units may be minimally influenced by unit-level data. Team-based antibiotic utilization may allow for a more targeted metric to drive individual team prescribing.
Three broad social factors – childhood adversity, immigration, and urban living – are robustly associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. To date, however, there is no consensus on what it is about these phenomena that raises the risk of psychotic illness. In 2005, J. P. Selten and E. Cantor-Graae proposed a “social defeat” hypothesis according to which the social determinants of schizophrenia are best characterized as experiences of social subordination. In recent years, the social-defeat hypothesis has been broadened to include experiences of social exclusion. In this chapter, we review the different versions of the social defeat hypothesis and argue that it fails to account for the urban effect. We further argue for the potential utility of paying greater attention to social science when theorizing about the social determinants of schizophrenia.
The neuroimaging era has brought an increasingly refined understanding of adolescent brain maturation, yielding insight into the protracted development of social cognition, learning, and executive function beyond childhood. These data have been applied in multiple domains of everyday life, including education. Adolescent brains have emerged as a theater of moral panic over the implications of social media on the one hand and income inequality on the other for mental health, social cohesion, and individual and community life chances. In this setting, neuroscience has been invoked to account for adolescent vulnerability and to develop interventions to mitigate behavioral problems and mental illness. These include the introduction into school curricula of mindfulness-based stress reduction, resilience training, “brain-based” pedagogy, and a neuroanatomical lexicon of introspection in which kids are encouraged to identify experiential states with brain regions. “Neuroeducation” represents a constellation of fluid alliances between the education profession, Silicon Valley tech solutionists, and the human potential movement. Cognitive neuroscience plays a notional role, chiefly via proponents’ invocation of developmental plasticity as physiological justification for interventions that are often based on preliminary research and remain wanting in clinical support. In this essay we explore neuroeducation through the lens of critical neuroscience.
This chapter concerns itself with the use of the law, legal institutions, and processes in anti-mosque activism and litigation to advance a social and political agenda that seeks to marginalize, if not expel, Islam and Muslims from mainstream America. It argues that even though anti-mosque activists who seek redress in courts most often lose, they “win by losing” – a phenomenon well theorized by law and social movement scholars.2 In other words, the strategy of litigating a narrow legal issue is not so much about winning the lawsuit, but about using the courts to introduce social and political claims that further an Islamophobic agenda. Regardless of the legal outcome, anti-Muslim groups achieve significant results: their use of the law results in political consolidation of the anti-mosque movement, it keeps alive questions about Islam and Muslims’ ability to “belong” in the United States, it demonstrates the willingness to fight for a dominant racial ordering that excludes minorities from some neighborhoods, and it forces the internalization of both social and material costs by Muslim communities that go well beyond the costs of litigation. As critical race scholars and critical theorists have long argued, law itself is a political and indeterminate instrument. In the introduction to this volume, we assert that the “law is a central, if not the most central, participant in the broader project of Islamophobia.”3Khaled Beydoun theorizes that from a legal perspective, Islamophobia can be understood as three intersecting dimensions: private, structural, and dialectical.4 This chapter demonstrates this very intersectionality as it appears in anti-mosque activism. It analyzes how the private Islamophobia of community members can become galvanized into community action and, through the use of the structures of the state (zoning commissions and courts), reinforce dialectical Islamophobia, signaling that Muslims must explain, apologize, and justify their actions even when those actions would be entirely uncontroversial for other groups.5