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The coexistence of comorbidity in schizophrenia (somatic, dual pathology, personality…) can conditionate evolution and prognosis in this severe mental illness, those aspects should be taken in account to planify treatments and follow up issues.
We are interested in this work in evaluate previous and developed comorbidity in schizophrenic patients; we also analyzed comorbidity consequences in clinical, therapeutical management, treatment adherence, relapses and hospitalizations.
Material and method:
In 50 Schizophrenic patients (DSM-IV TR Diagnostic criteria) with at least one previous psychotic episode we have studied longitudinal and transversally sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutical variables, related comorbidity (somatic, drugs related and dual pathology) and evolution, prognosis, clinical, treatment adherence and tolerance variables were also studied. We also evaluate psychopathologic and medical status (EEG, EKG, Chest RX, BMI, body weight, general analysis) secondary effects were registered. Uxue and CGI were the scales used.
Between 20% and 25% had other medical conditions, and 25-30% had some kind of drug abuse, those were who had worse prognosis, more secondary effects and usually were treated with classic antipsychotics.
The results are discussed, and we propose integrative treatments for schizophrenia and the co morbidities, focusing on affectivity and tolerance.
The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is one of the most useful tools available to the materials scientist. Yet both the complexity and expense of the equipment, and the huge investment in time necessary to become proficient in specimen preparation and image acquisition and analysis, mean that it is difficult for most industrial institutions to maintain a state-of-the-art TEM facility. How can industry overcome this problem? One solution is to set up a collaboration with a university, an industrial partner, or a government research laboratory. Such collaborations can be extremely valuable to the company, which gains access to microscopes, specimen-preparation equipment and the expertise of professional microscopists, and to the research laboratory, which benefits from the industrial perspective and the private sector's proficiency in materials preparation and processing.
Such collaborations exist, and they can produce excellent results. In this article, we present three case studies in which successful collaboration has occurred between industry and one of the Department of Energy's scientific user facilities, the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM-see sidebar). Our aim is not only to describe results that we hope will be of scientific interest but also to encourage industrial researchers to consider collaborations with institutes such as NCEM.
Systematic studies have been carried out about the effects of the thermal treatment parameters on melt-spun materials quenched at different cooling rates and based on the 2:14:1 hard magnetic phase. Samples of nominal compositions Dy3Nd10.2Fe79.6B6Si1.2 and Pr3Nd10.2Fe79.6B6Si1.2 were annealed at temperatures above that of crystallization of the amorphous phases present upon quenching, for times ranging from 1 to 30 min and by using different heating rates up to the annealing temperature. It is concluded that best hysteretic properties can be achieved in samples quenched at intermediate cooling rates by means of short-time thermal treatments performed by using high heating rates up to the treatment temperature. Low heating rates and long time anneals led to the deterioration of the hard magnetic behavior, due to the segregation of soft crystalline phases.
The crystallization process of amorphous electrodeposited samples of composition Co100–xPx (10 < x < 25) has been monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the resulting microstructure has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples of composition given by x < 21 crystallize through two consecutive stages, while those with x > 21 crystallize through a single one. Depending on the composition and crystallization stage, activation energies varying from 1.76 to 2.02 eV and frequency factors of the order of 1013–1014 s–1 have been evaluated. The DSC measurements are compatible with the coexistence of two amorphous phases with different compositions in the regions that are located near the edges of the samples. The analysis of the microstructure resulting from crystallization has shown the existence of two different types of texture for samples with values of x respectively above and below 21, as well as the presence of linear structures oriented perpendicular to the plane of the samples. The development of these features can be attributed to the fundamental role that the polarization, due to magnetization, plays in the crystallization process of this system. A gradual variation of the grain size has also been observed, indicating that crystallization takes place by an inhomogeneous nucleation and growth mechanism.
Giant Magnetoresistance, GMR, in thin metal films elicits attention due to its technological potential as well as its relevance to theory of exchange coupling. Epitaxial, phase-segregated ferromagnet/paramagnet Mixtures have been grown by UHV evaporation. Such films show spontaneous formation of ferromagnetic clusters, leading to large values of GMR (40% at room temperature) as grown. The growth of Co-Cu, Co-Ag, Fe-Ag and Permalloy-Ag films are described. Structural analysis by grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) provides a measure of cluster size and characteristic spacing. Effects of growth temperature and subsequent annealing on GMR and film structure are described. Preliminary results of TEM examination of (001) Fe-Ag and Co-Ag granular films are presented for the first time.
The Magnetoresistance of MBE deposited Co/Cu (111) superlattices as a function of Cu layer thickness is studied at various growth temperatures. Wedged superlattices are fabricated with uniform Co layers but with Cu layers whose thickness varies with position along the length of the substrate. Cu thickness is varied over the range 7–75Å. Only one Maximum M Magnetoresistance (MR) is observed for a Cu layer thickness ∼ 10Å for all growth temperatures studied (0°, 150°, 200°C). The optimal magnetoresistance values are achieved with 150°C growth temperature.
The analysis of the magnetization measurements performed on two Co-Cu multilayers confirm the antiferromagnetic coupling already observed with neutron experiments. Both exchange and anisotropy energies are taken into account and estimated. Their competitive role in the individual moment orientation leads to typical moment arrangements and hysteresis loops.
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