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Constitutions empower people to ask judges for binding orders directing state agents to remedy rights violations, but state agents do not always comply. Scholars propose that by making it easier to observe noncompliance, courts can leverage public pressure for compliance when it exists. Yet, exposure to information about noncompliance might lead individuals to accept high levels of noncompliance and reduce support for judicial remedies. We estimate the rate of noncompliance with judges’ orders via a rigorous tracking study of the Colombian tutela. We then embed this rate in three survey experiments fielded with online national quota samples. We show that people find the noncompliance rate in the tutela highly unacceptable regardless of a variety of mitigating factors. We also show that public reactions to this information depend on prior expectations, a finding that stresses the importance of scholarship in cognitive psychology for studies of compliance in law and politics.
A robust economy is assumed to bolster leaders' standing. This ignores how benefits of growth are distributed. Extending the partisan models of economic voting, we theorize executives are more likely rewarded when gains from growth go to their constituents. Analyses of presidential approval in 18 Latin American countries support our pro-constituency model of accountability. When economic inequality is high, growth concentrates among the rich, and approval of right-of-center presidents is higher. Leftist presidents benefit from growth when gains are more equally distributed. Further analyses show growth and inequality inform perceptions of personal finances differently based on wealth, providing a micro-mechanism behind the aggregate findings. Study results imply that the economy is not purely a valence issue, but also a position issue.
Paleoperspectives of climate provide important information for understanding future climate, particularly in arid regions such as California, where water availability is uncertain from year to year. Here, we present a record from Barley Lake, California, focusing on the interval spanning the Younger Dryas (YD) to the early Holocene (EH), a period of acute and rapid global climate change. Twelve radiocarbon dates constrain the timing between 12.9 and 8.1 ka. We combine a variety of sediment analyses to infer changes in lake productivity, relative lake level, and runoff dynamics. In general, the lake is characterized by two states separated by a <200-year transition: (1) a variably deep, lower-productivity YD lake; and (2) a two-part variably shallow, higher-productivity EH lake. Inferred EH winter-precipitation runoff reveals dynamic multidecadal-to-centennial-scale variability, in agreement with the EH lake-level data. The Barley Lake archive captures both hemispheric and regional signals of climate change across the transition, suggesting a role for both ocean-atmosphere and insolation forcing. Our paleoperspective emphasizes California's sensitivity to climate change and how that change can generate abrupt shifts in limnological regimes.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Our research group demonstrated that vitamin A restriction affected meat quality of Angus cross and Simmental steers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the genotype variations in response to dietary vitamin A levels. Commercial Angus and Simmental steers (n = 32 per breed; initial BW = 337.2 ± 5.9 kg; ~8 months of age) were fed a low-vitamin A (LVA) (1017 IU/kg DM) backgrounding diet for 95 days to reduce hepatic vitamin A stores. During finishing, steers were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of genotype × dietary vitamin A concentration. The LVA treatment was a finishing diet with no supplemental vitamin A (723 IU vitamin A/kg DM); the control (CON) was the LVA diet plus supplementation with 2200 IU vitamin A/kg DM. Blood samples were collected at three time points throughout the study to analyze serum retinol concentration. At the completion of finishing, steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Meat characteristics assessed were intramuscular fat concentration, color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss and pH. Camera image analysis was used for determination of marbling, 12th rib back fat and longissimus muscle area (LMA). The LVA steers had lower (P < 0.001) serum retinol concentration than CON steers. The LVA treatment resulted in greater (P = 0.03) average daily gain than the CON treatment, 1.52 and 1.44 ± 0.03 kg/day, respectively; however, there was no effect of treatment on final BW, DM intake or feed efficiency. Cooking loss and yield grade were greater and LMA was smaller in LVA steers (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between breed and treatment for marbling score (P = 0.01) and percentage of carcasses grading United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Prime (P = 0.02). For Angus steers, LVA treatment resulted in a 16% greater marbling score than CON (683 and 570 ± 40, respectively) and 27% of LVA Angus steers graded USDA Prime compared with 0% for CON. Conversely, there was no difference in marbling score or USDA Quality Grades between LVA and CON for Simmental steers. In conclusion, feeding a LVA diet during finishing increased marbling in Angus but not in Simmental steers. Reducing the vitamin A level of finishing diets fed to cattle with a high propensity to marble, such as Angus, has the potential to increase economically important traits such as marbling and quality grade without negatively impacting gain : feed or yield grade.
An increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events has been reported in psychiatric patients, but the exact mechanisms underlying this association are still uncertain. Elevated plasma level of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic disease in the general population. To study the implications of Lp(a) in psychiatric patients, we measured the plasma levels of Lp(a) in 74 patients with psychiatric disorders (39 schizophrenia, 10 major depression, 13 bipolar disorder and 12 personality disorder) and 74 healthy controls. The Lp(a) levels of the patient groups with schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder were significantly higher than that of the control group. The median Lp(a) value of these diagnostic groups was comparable with those reported in patients with prior atherothrombotic events. On the other hand, no differences were found among personality disorder and controls. Our findings suggest that the elevation of plasma Lp(a) may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in several patients with psychiatric disorders.
Les personnes migrantes et refugiées que l’on reçoit au centre, souvent orientées par les services sociaux des CADA et des PASS qui sont en première ligne pour les populations vulnérables ou fragilisées. Un cas sera détaillé pour illustrer cette problématique de l’exil et de l’impact du traumatisme sur la personnalité et sur la structure psychique. L’auteur soulignera l’importance cruciale de l’écoute de la souffrance sociale, de l’élaboration diagnostique grâce à la confrontation des modèles explicatoires et à la nécessaire réponse globale sociale et psychothérapeutique. Analyser et comprendre l’impact des déterminants sociaux, sociétaux, culturels et structurels de la personnalité préfigure notre approche centrée sur la personne.
Approximately one quarter of children living in Northern Ireland are overweight or obese. Intelligent personal systems (IPS) such as Amazon Echo and Google Home have become increasingly integrated into the home setting and therefore, may facilitate behaviour change via novel interactions or as an adjunct to conventional interventions. However, little is currently known about their potential role in this context; therefore, the aim of this feasibility study is to assess the effect of a home-based technology intervention (delivered using Amazon Echo) on physical activity (PA) and dietary habits in families attending the Safe Wellbeing Eating & Exercise Together (SWEET) project, a community-based health promotion programme. Recruitment to the study is ongoing with the aim of recruiting up to 16 families. Families are randomly assigned to receive an IPS (n = 8) or assigned to control (n = 8) i.e. attend the SWEET project as usual, for 12 weeks. Individualised prompts and reminders, aligned with the content of the SWEET project, are regularly delivered to families via the IPS and normal interaction with the device is also encouraged. The primary outcome measure is PA, which will be objectively measured using an Actigraph accelerometer, and secondary outcome measures include body mass index (BMI) and family eating and activity habits. Process evaluation data from focus groups and device interaction will be used to determine the feasibility of using IPS to promote healthy behaviours within the home setting. To date, 11 families have been recruited (11 adults, 90.9% F; 16 children, 56.3% F), mean age 40.4 ± 5.5 years and BMI 34.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2 for adults and 8.9 ± 2.1 years and BMI z-score 2.61 ± 1.23 for children. Average moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was dichotomised to determine the percentage of adults and children meeting the UK (2011) PA guidelines for health. In total, 62.5% of adults reached the recommended level of 150 minutes MVPA per week before the intervention (n = 8;191.50 ± 81.10 minutes), with 40% of children reaching the recommended level of 60 minutes MVPA each day of the week (n = 10; M = 52.83 ± 31.07 minutes). Follow-up measurements will be taken at the end of the intervention and acceptability and usability of such devices within the context of promoting healthy behaviours will be assessed. The findings from this feasibility study will demonstrate whether the use of IPS can increase PA in adults and children, as well as provide novel insights into the feasibility of using these devices to facilitate behaviour change.
Negotiating peace in a democratic context where public opinion matters and an international context eschewing the past norm of forgive-and-forget to end conflicts poses new dilemmas for peace negotiators. With both domestic constituents and international law demanding retributive justice for the most egregious human rights abuses, how are negotiators to induce combatants to lay down arms and end a conflict? We examine these dilemmas in the Colombia peace talks of 2012–2016 – a case of a protracted conflict in a democracy with relatively strong rule of law institutions; well-organized civil society, and especially human rights organizations; and a vibrant political dynamic involving both the multi-party Congress and public opinion in the approval and implementation of the negotiated agreement.
How does single-party dominance influence interpersonal trust? We draw on evidence from trust games played by more than 2,000 subjects in South Africa, where, since Apartheid, race-based social enmity has persisted under democratic competition characterized by single-party dominance. We find that partisan-based trust discrimination is most pronounced for those who identify with the main opposition party and is driven by strong distrust of rival partisans. These findings underscore how electoral competition, in general, shapes trust across party lines and suggests one-sided competition, in particular, has asymmetrical effects between parties in dominant party systems. Moreover, this study provides additional evidence regarding the relative weights of trustworthiness stereotypes tied to partisanship and race.
With the LAMOST DR4 and Gaia DR2 common red clump giant stars, we investigate the three-dimensional kinematics of Milky Way disk stars in mono-age populations between Galactocentric distances of R = 6 and 15 kpc. We confirm the 3D asymmetrical motions of recent works, and provide time tagging of the Galactic outer disk asymmetrical motions. Radial motions present a north-south asymmetry in the region corresponding to recent density and velocity substructures that were sensitive to the perturbations in the early 6 Gyr. What’s more, we discover a new velocity substructure in the north side corresponding to density dip found recently (“south-middle opposite”) in the radial and azimuthal velocity. Meanwhile, the vertical velocity with clear vertical bulk motions or bending mode motions has no clear asymmetry corresponding to the in-plane asymmetrical features.
Background: There are few published reports on the safety and efficacy of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) in the presurgical evaluation of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy. Our objective was to describe institutional experience with pediatric SEEG in terms of (1) insertional complications, (2) identification of the epileptogenic zone and (3) seizure outcome following SEEG-tailored resections. Methods: Retrospective review of 29 patients pediatric drug resistant epilepsy patients who underwent presurgical SEEG between 2005 – 2018. Results: 29 pediatric SEEG patients (15 male; 12.4 ± 4.6 years old) were included in this study with mean follow-up of 6.0 ± 4.1 years. SEEG-related complications occurred in 1/29 (3%)—neurogenic pulmonary edema. A total of 190 multi-contact electrodes (mean of 7.0 ± 2.5per patient) were implanted across 30 insertions which captured 437 electrographic seizures (mean 17.5 ± 27.6 per patient). The most common rationale for SEEG was normal MRI with surface EEG that failed to identify the EZ (16/29; 55%). SEEG-tailored resections were performed in 24/29 (83%). Engel I outcome was achieved following resections in 19/24 cases (79%) with 5.9 ± 4.0 years of post-operative follow-up. Conclusions: Stereoelectroencephalography in presurgical evaluation of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy is a safe and effective way to identify the epileptogenic zone permitting SEEG-tailored resection.
This article examines the growth of resilience-focused youth policy in Scotland, and its association with the proliferation of the ACE (Adverse Childhood Experiences) agenda. To do this, it critically compares policy discourse with qualitative data on young people’s experiences of growing up in two similar, low-income neighbourhoods. This combination leads us to problematise resilience-informed practice, relative to the voices of young people. Our review demonstrates that by emphasising individual protective factors, resilience discourse reframes inequalities embedded within certain neighbourhoods, and the specific impacts on young people who live there. The consequence is not an assets-based youth policy that supports all young people, but rather a form of resilience which promotes the ‘steeling’ of young people; making them stronger and more resistant to adversities. These adversities, we conclude, may be preventable within a more just social order.
Maternal mental health during pregnancy and postpartum predicts later emotional and behavioural problems in children. Even though most perinatal mental health problems begin before pregnancy, the consequences of preconception maternal mental health for children's early emotional development have not been prospectively studied.
We used data from two prospective Australian intergenerational cohorts, with 756 women assessed repeatedly for mental health problems before pregnancy between age 13 and 29 years, and during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum for 1231 subsequent pregnancies. Offspring infant emotional reactivity, an early indicator of differential sensitivity denoting increased risk of emotional problems under adversity, was assessed at 1 year postpartum.
Thirty-seven percent of infants born to mothers with persistent preconception mental health problems were categorised as high in emotional reactivity, compared to 23% born to mothers without preconception history (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.1). Ante- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were similarly associated with infant emotional reactivity, but these perinatal associations reduced somewhat after adjustment for prior exposure. Causal mediation analysis further showed that 88% of the preconception risk was a direct effect, not mediated by perinatal exposure.
Maternal preconception mental health problems predict infant emotional reactivity, independently of maternal perinatal mental health; while associations between perinatal depressive symptoms and infant reactivity are partially explained by prior exposure. Findings suggest that processes shaping early vulnerability for later mental disorders arise well before conception. There is an emerging case for expanding developmental theories and trialling preventive interventions in the years before pregnancy.
Public approval is a crucial source of executive power in presidential systems. Does the public support female and male presidents similarly? Combining insights from gender and politics research with psychological evidence, this study theorizes sex-based differentials in popularity based on more general expectations linking gender stereotypes to diverging performance evaluations. Using quarterly analyses of eighteen Latin American democracies, South Korea and the Philippines, the analyses compare the levels, dynamics, and policy performance of macro-approval for male and female presidents. As expected, female presidents are less popular, experience exaggerated approval dynamics and their approval is more responsive to security and corruption (though not economic) outcomes. These findings have clear implications for our understandings of mass politics, political accountability and presidentialism.
From the moment Gutenberg's Bible was set to print, books have played a role in shaping society. The enduring legacy of the book as a powerful vehicle for social transformation is just as significant today as it was over five hundred years ago. Contemporary artists’ books can serve as powerful catalysts within the classroom and in the community to foster conversations that address social justice issues and to generate dialog that can lead to greater understanding. This article will focus on how one liberal arts college library has promoted artists’ books in conversations to explore cultural competency and to encourage understanding.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Preliminary animal studies showed that low-intensity ultrasound (US) coincident with intravascularly administered microbubbles locally disrupts tumor vasculature. This study translates the novel therapy of antivascular ultrasound (AVUS) into an autochthonous model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The differential effects produced by AVUS at low and high doses are evaluated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: HCC was induced in 12 Wistar rats by ingestion of 0.01% diethylnitrosamine in drinking water for 12 weeks. Rats received AVUS treatment at low and high doses. Low dose group (n=6) received 1 W/cm2 US for 1 minute with 0.2 mL microbubbles injected IV. High dose group (n=6) received 2 W/cm2 for 2 minute with 0.7 mL microbubbles IV. Perfusion was measured before and after AVUS with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) and power Doppler (PD-US). Peak enhancement (PE) and perfusion index (PI) were measured from each US mode. Histology after sacrifice or natural death was compared to pre/post US. Analysis of H&E and trichrome sections was evaluated for percent area of hemorrhage and findings of tissue injury and repair including inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After high dose AVUS, PE, and PI of CE-US decreased from baseline by an average of 33.3% and 29.7%, respectively. Histology showed extensive tissue injury (hemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis) in 58% of tumor cross-sectional area. Conversely, low dose AVUS increased PE and PI of CE-US by an average of 39.3% and 67.8%, respectively. Histology showed smaller areas of microhemorrhage Versus large pools of hemorrhage (only 17% area). PD-US changes were similar to CE-US. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In summary, the opposing effects of AVUS observed at 2 doses allows for multiple roles in tumor therapy. Enhanced perfusion at a low dose may improve drug delivery or radiation therapy. Whereas, vascular disruption at high doses of AVUS may allow noninvasive ischemic therapy. Furthermore, AVUS is ripe for translation given the use its component parts clinically: low-intensity long-tone burst for physiotherapy and microbubbles as an US contrast agent. Thus, AVUS should be evaluated for translation of its differential effects into noninvasive therapies for HCC and other tumors.