High energy (2 MeV) ion implantation of Fe in InP has been investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS). The implanted doses ranged between 5×l013 and 5×l014 at/cm2. Annealing in the 650–800 °C range was performed and the primary as well as secondary damage evolution has been studied. The correlations between defect structure and Fe redistribution properties have been carefully analysed. The results show the role of the primary defect structure in determining the annealing properties, both for damage recovery and Fe redistribution. The latter is also influenced by the doping of the substrate.