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This article draws on ethnographic fieldwork conducted over the course of one year in London and Bristol to examine the performance of rap in English youth centres. Youth centres play a significant role in supporting and shaping rap culture. However, historically dominant narratives within hip-hop studies and hip-hop culture depict rap as a vernacular cultural form that emerges from ‘the street’, and which derives its authenticity through its relation to ‘the street’. We seek to move beyond such discourses and towards a recognition of the institutional processes, structures and networks that shape and sustain rap culture. Our focus on the institutional life of rap leads to an analysis of the various possibilities, limitations and tensions that arise in the coming together of public funding, and social policy priorities, local organisations and black vernacular culture.
Pageants, processions and Royal Entries were regular and significant occurrences in the streets of London between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, but the streets were perhaps surprisingly unsuited for such events. The condition of most roads, streets and lanes was very poor: a mixture of paved and unpaved surfaces, soil, gravel, stones, domestic waste, trade waste, mud, and dung. In addition to such conditions under foot, the clear passageway along these thoroughfares was often encroached upon by indiscriminate additions to buildings which had hitherto formed the natural boundaries of streets. Local officials in London wrestled with the seemingly never-ending problems of human and animal waste and built encroachments upon the streets. The purpose of this article is to establish the nature of street conditions and their preparation for the execution of pageants and processions.
The everyday condition of the streets in which pageants and processions took place was, by modern standards, primitive and ill-thought-out. The situation was not substantially improved when a procession took place, although citizens and local officials did attempt to clean up before processions and pageants, and to improve safety along procession routes. An example of the extent to which the London mayors and their aldermen considered it necessary to regulate street conditions to facilitate pageants and processions is clearly outlined in ‘A proclamation for the coming of Queen Margaret of England’ issued in London in 1445:
within þis Citee & þe ffraunchis þerof
Be it proclamyd þat alle maner of men make good and due serche vpon the the [sic] accrochmentz pro garetz ∧and haultpices without here housez and vpon here pentisez there latises afore there windows and housez that thei be good sufficeant and sure for people to stand vpon leue wa in eschuyng of variaunces disturbling fray or myschief ∧ that myght falle the twix the kinges people ayens nowe at the comyng of our ∧most souueraign lady the quene
Also that alle maner of signez and poles of hostries and tauernez and of alle other the serched that thei be good and sure for fawyng and hurtyng of the kinges people
Mental health problems in early adulthood may disrupt partner relationship formation and quality. This prospective study used four waves of Australian data to investigate the effects of depression and anxiety in early adulthood on the quality of future partner (i.e. marriage or cohabiting) relationships.
A representative community sample of Australian adults aged 20–24 years was assessed in 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. Analyses were restricted to those who at baseline had never entered a marriage or cohabiting relationship with no children (n = 1592). Associations were examined between baseline depression and anxiety levels (using the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety scales) and (a) future relationship status and (b) the quality of marriage or cohabiting relationships recorded at follow-up (up to 12 years later) (partner social support and conflict scales).
Depression in early adulthood was associated with never entering a partner relationship over the study period. For those who did enter a relationship, both depression and anxiety were significantly associated with subsequently lower relationship support and higher conflict. Supplementary analyses restricting the analyses to the first relationship entered at follow-up, and considering comorbid anxiety and depression, strongly supported these findings.
Depression and anxiety in early adulthood is associated with poorer partner relationship quality in the future. This study adds to evidence showing that mental health problems have substantial personal and inter-personal costs. The findings support the need to invest in prevention and early intervention.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
English common law was applied in the New South Wales penal colony when it was founded by Governor Arthur Phillip in 1788. Phillip’s second commission granted him sole authority to appoint coroners and justices of the peace within the colony. The first paid city coroner was appointed in 1810 and only five coroners served the expanding territory of New South Wales by 1821. To relieve the burden on coroners, justices of the peace were authorised to conduct magisterial inquiries as an alternative to inquests. When the Moreton Bay settlement was established, and land was opened up to free settlers, justices were relocated from New South Wales to the far northern colony. Nonetheless, the administration of justice, along with the function of the coroner, was hindered by issues of isolation, geography and poor administration by a government far removed from the evolving settlement. This article is about death investigation and the role of the coroner in Moreton Bay. By examining a number of case studies, it looks at the constraints faced by coroners, deaths due to interracial violence and deaths not investigated. It concludes that not all violent and unexplained deaths were investigated in accordance with coronial law due to a paucity of legally qualified magistrates, the physical limitations of local conditions and the denial of justice to Aborigines as subjects of the Crown.
On 18 July 1469 Queen Elizabeth Woodville entered the City of Norwich via the Westwyk Gate (later renamed St Benedict's Gate) on the west side of the city. Upon hearing of her impending visit from the ‘shirreve of Norffolk hym silf’, John Aubry, the Mayor of Norwich, had written to ‘the right reuerent Ser Henry Spelman, Recordour of the cité of Norwich’ on 6 July to ask his advice about appropriate measures for the Queen's visit: ‘And I desired to haue knowe of hym [the sheriff of Norfolk], by cause this shuld be hir first comyng hedir, how we shuld be rulyd, as well in hir resseyuyng, as in hir abidyng here’. The ‘shirreve of Norffolk’ had impressed upon Aubry that the Queen ‘wooll desire to ben resseyued and attendid as wurshepfully as euir was quene a-forn hir’.
The principal information concerning the visit of Elizabeth Woodville to Norwich is recorded in the Chamberlains’ Account Books (1469–90), held in the archives of the Norfolk Record Office, Norwich. The accounts occupy folios 10r–14r and give full details of the financial outlay for the Queen's Entry. They were written by Geoffrey Spirleng, who was one of the Norwich Chamberlains heavily involved in the Queen's reception. These costs and expenses were accounted for by John Coke and William Henstede Junior, Chamberlains of the city. Folios 10r–11r consist of payments made by Coke and Henstede, and folios 11v–12v present invoices from people engaged in the preparations. Itemised accounts from the notebook of Henstede occur in folios 12v–14r. Since selections from the accounts have often been alluded to previously but not transcribed or translated in full, we have provided a full transcription and translation in our Appendix 1.
Our purpose in analysing the document is to investigate the nature and character of the reception and the role of William Parnell in creating the event. Many other people were involved in the creation and preparation of the reception but Parnell was engaged for his undoubted skill in providing the theatrical flair and colour to the proceedings. Other records beyond those of NCR 18a–2 offer additional information concerning Parnell's range of theatrical projects which enable us to consider him as what was later to be designated a ‘property player’.
This study tested the hypothesis that relationship efficacy beliefs mediate the well-documented association between attachment style and relationship satisfaction in a sample of emerging adult women in dating relationships. Further, it explored whether efficacy beliefs vary as a function of romantic experience. Participants (N = 216, Mage = 19.2 years) completed measures of attachment style, efficacy beliefs (mutuality, differentiation, emotional control, and social), and relationship satisfaction. Mutuality beliefs mediated the association between attachment avoidance and anxiety and satisfaction; however, other patterns of mediation were also found. Social, but not relationship, efficacy beliefs differed as a function of number of previous romantic relationships. Results suggest that insecurely attached individuals experience lower relationship satisfaction, in part because they hold less efficacious beliefs about their ability to engage in caregiving and careseeking behaviours. Future longitudinal research might examine how newly forming attachment representations and relationship-relevant efficacy beliefs shape each other.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.