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In the decade since the publication of the first edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology, the field has expanded into areas such as social work and education, while maintaining the interest of criminal justice researchers and policy makers. This new edition provides cutting-edge and comprehensive coverage of the key theoretical perspectives, assessment methods, and interventions in forensic psychology. The chapters address substantive topics such as acquisitive crime, domestic violence, mass murder, and sexual violence, while also exploring emerging areas of research such as the expansion of cybercrime, particularly child sexual exploitation, as well as aspects of terrorism and radicalisation. Reflecting the global reach of forensic psychology and its wide range of perspectives, the international team of contributors emphasise diversity and cross-reference between adults, adolescents, and children to deliver a contemporary picture of the discipline.
Software testing can be regarded as an art, a craft, and a science. The practical, step-by-step approach presented in this book provides a bridge between these different viewpoints. A single worked example runs throughout, with consistent use of test automation. Each testing technique is introduced in the context of this example, helping students see its strengths and weaknesses. The technique is then explained in more detail, providing a deeper understanding of underlying principles. Finally the limitations of each technique are demonstrated by inserting faults, giving learners concrete examples of when each technique succeeds or fails in finding faults. Coverage includes black-box testing, white-box testing, random testing, unit testing, object-oriented testing, and application testing. The authors also emphasise the process of applying the techniques, covering the steps of analysis, test design, test implementation, and interpretation of results. The book's web site has programming exercises and Java source code for all examples.
This collection critically discusses the increasing significance of Asian States in the field of international investment law and policy. Consisting of contributions authored by a leading team of scholars and practitioners of international investment law, this volume contains analyses of both national and multilateral investment law rule-making in Asia, including a critical discussion of certain States' approaches to balancing the different tension between investment protection and the preservation of States' regulatory sovereignty. It also contains thematic chapters on cutting-edge developments which are of relevance to Asia as well as the global community, such as investors' obligations of due diligence, additional transparency in treaty-based investment arbitration responses by ASEAN member States to transboundary haze pollution, and the relevance of human rights obligations in international investment law. It also contemplates future possibilities for investor-State dispute settlement, including the use of investor-State mediation in view of the Singapore Convention on Mediation.
All the more telling for being an arbitrary and often intimate historical record, poetry provides the primary source for this chapter’s account of nineteenth-century medicine. Poems by John Gibson, Thomas Fessenden, George Crabbe, William Wordsworth, and Humphrey Davy disclose that the practice of medicine, whether by quacks or the learned, was so ineffectual at the start of the century as to allow the Romantics to plausibly argue for the curative effects of poetry and the imagination, both of which became integral to a new science of life. The professional medicine that sprang from this science, however, asserted its autonomy from poetry, most effectively by pathologising such poets as John Keats and Oscar Wilde, who in turn offered their own verse ripostes. Its positivism and ‘hands-on’ diagnostics yielded new conceptions of the body and touch that Alfred Tennyson, G. M. Hopkins, and Walt Whitman each reflect upon in their poetry. Finally, the growing acceptance of the germ theory of disease enabled pathologies of art as illness that are variously elaborated upon and joked about by Edward Lear, Henry Savile Clerk, Wilde, and Ronald Ross, who also reaches for poetry to record his sublimely momentous discovery of the malaria pathogen in 1896.
The Catholic Church in the United States includes among its institutions a vast social welfare network that has been important for countless individuals, including the Catholics who support it, the Catholics who benefit from it, and the non-Catholics who have been recipients of its services. This essay provides a narrative of that development, identifying the key characters and turning points from the eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the intersection of “American” and “Catholic”: what the church learned from the American culture around it, and what the church contributed to it through its teachings about charity and its example of putting those teachings into action.
For the last two decades, high-dimensional data and methods have proliferated throughout the literature. Yet, the classical technique of linear regression has not lost its usefulness in applications. In fact, many high-dimensional estimation techniques can be seen as variable selection that leads to a smaller set of variables (a “submodel”) where classical linear regression applies. We analyze linear regression estimators resulting from model selection by proving estimation error and linear representation bounds uniformly over sets of submodels. Based on deterministic inequalities, our results provide “good” rates when applied to both independent and dependent data. These results are useful in meaningfully interpreting the linear regression estimator obtained after exploring and reducing the variables and also in justifying post-model-selection inference. All results are derived under no model assumptions and are nonasymptotic in nature.
Negative beliefs about the self, including low self-compassion, have been identified as a putative causal factor in the occurrence of paranoia. Therefore, improving self-compassion may be one route to reduce paranoia.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential clinical effects of a brief compassionate imagery intervention for patients with persecutory delusions.
Twelve patients with persecutory delusions received an individual four-session compassionate imagery intervention. Assessments of self-concept and paranoia were completed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 1-month follow-up. A qualitative study exploring participants’ experiences of the treatment was also completed.
Twelve out of 14 eligible patients referred to the study agreed to take part. All participants completed all therapy sessions and assessments. Post-treatment, there were improvements in self-compassion (change score –0.64, 95% CI –1.04, –0.24, d = –1.78), negative beliefs about the self (change score 2.42, 95% CI –0.37, 5.20, d = 0.51), and paranoia (change score 10.08, 95% CI 3.47, 16.69, d = 0.61). There were no serious adverse events. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: ‘effortful learning’, ‘seeing change’ and ‘taking it forward’. Participants described a process of active and effortful engagement in therapy which was rewarded with positive changes, including feeling calmer, gaining clarity, and developing acceptance.
This uncontrolled feasibility study indicates that a brief compassionate imagery intervention for patients with persecutory delusions is feasible, acceptable, and may lead to clinical benefits.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
THE CENTRALITY of feminism to Sarah Kay's work is relatively uncommented on, partly because Kay's feminism is conceptualised and practised in lithe and complex ways that are always already intersectional (as we now say) with so much else. Her 1995 Political Fictions combines feminist critique with rethinking the genre of the chanson de geste and genre history: it disrupts the literary genealogy whereby women, courtly love, and twelfth-century modernity come to influence and ultimately to replace with romance the chanson de geste's epic gravitas and privileged access to an orally transmitted heroic masculine and historical past. Demonstrating that the majority of the chansons are contemporary with romances over the period from c.1160 to c.1240, Kay uses Fredric Jameson's (1981) notion of the political unconscious to argue for chanson de geste and romance as ‘political fictions’, both working with particular assumptions about what can and cannot be represented. Moreover, the genres relate to each other dialectically: the conflicts exposed by chansons de geste are repressed or disguised in romance, while romance similarly offers clues to the political unconscious of the chansons. It is not, Kay concludes, that the chansons de geste have undergone ‘romance influence’, but that their critics have. In fact, the modern ‘literary object’ (on which see Courtly Contradictions) derives from medieval romance, with its preferences for complex relations between words and things, single narratorial lines or foci, and ‘the individual’: what Kay terms ‘the poetics of the commodity’, in contrast to the chanson de geste's ‘poetics of the gift’.
It seems worth concentrating here on feminism(-plus) both for its key role in Political Fictions’ extensive rethinking of literary history and because of the continuing pertinence of Kay's account of women in the chansons de geste to where we are now. Arguing that romance representation of women as objects of erotic interest is not acceptable as the acme of women's aspiration, Kay dispenses with the teleological history that makes romance a progression from epic: ‘the forms that sexism and patriarchy take are redefined in every new political mentality’, making it impossible ‘to discount them by relegating them to the primitive past’.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. However, extracting this information requires complex analysis pipelines that include data wrangling, calibration, analysis, and visualization, all while maintaining robustness against imaging distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we present py4DSTEM, an analysis toolkit for measuring material properties from 4D-STEM datasets, written in the Python language and released with an open-source license. We describe the algorithmic steps for dataset calibration and various 4D-STEM property measurements in detail and present results from several experimental datasets. We also implement a simple and universal file format appropriate for electron microscopy data in py4DSTEM, which uses the open-source HDF5 standard. We hope this tool will benefit the research community and help improve the standards for data and computational methods in electron microscopy, and we invite the community to contribute to this ongoing project.
Conventional historical periods – ‘classical’, ‘medieval’, ‘early modern’ etc. – help us as historians orient ourselves with respect to each other and to communicate what we do to a wider public. However, traditional periodisation is also dangerous. Giving a span of time a label tends to constrain our narratives within a set of assumptions. If we try to use the past to inform our understanding of the present, we may bring those assumptions forward, to identify or contrast with contemporary events in a way that has little to do either with the past or with the present. Terrorism is a historically and culturally contingent concept; it is modern, and it is Western. Past attitudes towards violence and who was entitled to use it were likewise very different from those that prevail in the modern West. As we write a history of terrorism, we should forgo both the use of conventional periodisation and the use of the term ‘terrorism’, even in a lowest-common-denominator sense, as a transtemporal, objective object of enquiry. This does not mean that we should jettison the word ‘terrorism’ altogether. We should rather view the word itself as having a history that embraces an evolving and shifting set of ideas, and that fits into a much older story about humanity’s views of order and disorder and its uses of violence and fear.
This chapter discusses critical issues involved in the interpretation of the Corinthian correspondence, with special attention to various responses to Paul and his claims to apostolic authority, to different understandings of the resurrection in the early church, and to the collection for the saints in Jerusalem and its significance for interpreting Paul’s larger ministry.
This chapter shifts to the island of Cuba and the La Escalera conspiracy in the mid-1840s. As this chapter reveals, this conspiracy between free and enslaved people of color in the Spanish colony to overthrow their oppressors takes center stage in the later novels of Martin Delany and Andrés Avelino de Orihuela, each of whom turns to La Escalera in order to develop a particular vision of Black revolution in the hemisphere.
In-patients subject to Section 37/41 of the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) require permission from the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) for leave, transfer and discharge. This study aimed to quantify the time spent waiting for the MoJ to respond to requests, using data on restricted patients recalled to a non-forensic unit over 8 years.
Eleven admissions were identified. The mean total time waiting for response was 95 days per admission, with an estimated cost of £40 922 per admission.
Current procedures may contribute to considerable increases in length of stay. This goes against the principles of the MHA, as non-secure services rarely provide the range of interventions which justify prolonged admission. We suggest several ways to resolve this issue, including broadening the guidance for the use of voluntary admissions and civil sections, and allowing clinicians to make decisions on leave and transfer where there is little risk.
Intrauterine preeclampsia exposure affects the lifelong cardiometabolic health of the child. Our study aimed to compare the growth (from birth to 6 months) of infants exposed to either a normotensive pregnancy or preeclampsia and explore the influence of being born small for gestational age (SGA). Participants were children of women participating in the Post-partum, Physiology, Psychology and Paediatric follow-up cohort study. Birth and 6-month weight and length z-scores were calculated for term and preterm (<37 weeks) babies, and change in weight z-score, rapid weight gain (≥0.67 increase in weight z-score) and conditional weight gain z-score were calculated. Compared with normotensive exposed infants (n = 298), preeclampsia exposed infants (n = 84) were more likely to be born SGA (7% versus 23%; P < 0.001), but weight gain from birth to 6 months, by any measure, did not differ between groups. Infants born SGA, irrespective of pregnancy exposure, were more likely to have rapid weight gain and had greater increases in weight z-score compared with those not born SGA. Preeclampsia exposed infants born SGA may benefit from interventions designed to prevent future cardiometabolic disease.
San Francisco (California USA) is a relatively compact city with a population of 884,000 and nine stroke centers within a 47 square mile area. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) transport distances and times are short and there are currently no Mobile Stroke Units (MSUs).
This study evaluated EMS activation to computed tomography (CT [EMS-CT]) and EMS activation to thrombolysis (EMS-TPA) times for acute stroke in the first two years after implementation of an emergency department (ED) focused, direct EMS-to-CT protocol entitled “Mission Protocol” (MP) at a safety net hospital in San Francisco and compared performance to published reports from MSUs. The EMS times were abstracted from ambulance records. Geometric means were calculated for MP data and pooled means were similarly calculated from published MSU data.
From July 2017 through June 2019, a total of 423 patients with suspected stroke were evaluated under the MP, and 166 of these patients were either ultimately diagnosed with ischemic stroke or were treated as a stroke but later diagnosed as a stroke mimic. The EMS and treatment time data were available for 134 of these patients with 61 patients (45.5%) receiving thrombolysis, with mean EMS-CT and EMS-TPA times of 41 minutes (95% CI, 39-43) and 63 minutes (95% CI, 57-70), respectively. The pooled estimates for MSUs suggested a mean EMS-CT time of 35 minutes (95% CI, 27-45) and a mean EMS-TPA time of 48 minutes (95% CI, 39-60). The MSUs achieved faster EMS-CT and EMS-TPA times (P <.0001 for each).
In a moderate-sized, urban setting with high population density, MP was able to achieve EMS activation to treatment times for stroke thrombolysis that were approximately 15 minutes slower than the published performance of MSUs.
The First Episode Rapid Early Intervention for Eating Disorders (FREED) service model is associated with significant reductions in wait times and improved clinical outcomes for emerging adults with recent-onset eating disorders. An understanding of how FREED is implemented is a necessary precondition to enable an attribution of these findings to key components of the model, namely the wait-time targets and care package.
This study evaluated fidelity to the FREED service model during the multicentre FREED-Up study.
Participants were 259 emerging adults (aged 16–25 years) with an eating disorder of <3 years duration, offered treatment through the FREED care pathway. Patient journey records documented patient care from screening to end of treatment. Adherence to wait-time targets (engagement call within 48 h, assessment within 2 weeks, treatment within 4 weeks) and care package, and differences in adherence across diagnosis and treatment group were examined.
There were significant increases (16–40%) in adherence to the wait-time targets following the introduction of FREED, irrespective of diagnosis. Receiving FREED under optimal conditions also increased adherence to the targets. Care package use differed by component and diagnosis. The most used care package activities were psychoeducation and dietary change. Attention to transitions was less well used.
This study provides an indication of adherence levels to key components of the FREED model. These adherence rates can tentatively be considered as clinically meaningful thresholds. Results highlight aspects of the model and its implementation that warrant future examination.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among patients in a female forensic psychiatric in-patient medium-secure unit, and to analyse the link between ACEs, adulthood self-harm and associated comorbidities and risk factors. The study used a cross-sectional design, with data gathered from the anonymised electronic health records of patients.
It was found that there was a high prevalence of both ACEs and self-harm among this patient group, and that there was a relationship between the two; those with more ACEs were more likely to have self-harmed during adulthood. Of the individual ACE categories, it was also demonstrated that emotional abuse had a significant association with adulthood self-harm.
In medium-secure settings for women, implementation of trauma-informed care will be beneficial because of the high number of those with mental disorders who have experienced adversity during their childhood.