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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In 2016, more than 3,100 children died, and an estimated 17,000 children had non-fatal injuries, from firearms in the United States. In this study, we used hospital charges as a proxy for medical resource utilization, and compared differences in charges by intent of firearm injury among children. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this cross-sectional study of the 2016 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, we identified firearm injury cases among children aged 19 years or younger using ICD-10-CM external cause of morbidity codes. Injury intent was characterized as unintentional, assault, self-inflicted, undetermined, or due to legal intervention. We included patients treated and released from the emergency department (ED) or admitted alive to the hospital, and excluded those who were transferred or died in the ED. We used linear regressions with survey weighting to compare differences in mean healthcare charges by firearm injury intent, with and without adjustment for ED disposition. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 12,469 cases in the weighted sample, mean age was 16.5 years, a majority were male (88.2%) and Medicaid-insured (57.8%), and 64% were discharged from the ED and 36% admitted. Injuries were 49.0% unintentional, 45.1% assault-related, and 1.8% self-inflicted. Compared to children with self-inflicted injuries (charges $115,224), children with assault-related injuries (charges $55,052; p<0.007) and unintentional injuries (charges $38,643; p<0.001) had lower mean charges per visit. Differences in charges were no longer significant after adjusting for ED disposition, as 85.8% of self-inflicted injuries were admitted, compared to 46.5% of assault-related and 24.3% of unintentional injuries. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Although the majority of pediatric firearm-related injuries resulting in emergency department care are unintentional or assault-related, self-inflicted injuries result in greater per visit hospital charges, attributable to higher hospitalization rates, and likely due to more severe injuries.
XDCPJ0044.0-2033 is one of the most massive galaxy cluster at z ∼1.6, for which a wealth of multi-wavelength photometric and spectroscopic data have been collected during the last years. I have reported on the properties of the galaxy members in the very central region (∼ 70kpc × 70kpc) of the cluster, derived through deep HST photometry, SINFONI and KMOS IFU spectroscopy, together with Chandra X-ray, ALMA and JVLA radio data.
In the core of the cluster, we have identified two groups of galaxies (Complex A and Complex B), seven of them confirmed to be cluster members, with signatures of ongoing merging. These galaxies show perturbed morphologies and, three of them show signs of AGN activity. In particular, two of them, located at the center of each complex, have been found to host luminous, obscured and highly accreting AGN (λ = 0.4−0.6) exhibiting broad Hα line. Moreover, a third optically obscured type-2 AGN, has been discovered through BPT diagram in Complex A. The AGN at the center of Complex B is detected in X-ray while the other two, and their companions, are spatially related to radio emission. The three AGN provide one of the closest AGN triple at z > 1 revealed so far with a minimum (maximum) projected distance of 10 kpc (40 kpc). The discovery of multiple AGN activity in a highly star-forming region associated to the crowded core of a galaxy cluster at z ∼ 1.6, suggests that these processes have a key role in shaping the nascent Brightest Cluster Galaxy, observed at the center of local clusters. According to our data, all galaxies in the core of XDCPJ0044.0-2033 could form a BCG of M* ∼ 1012Mȯ hosting a BH of 2 × 108−109Mȯ, in a time scale of the order of 2.5 Gyrs.
Pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating is a robust behavioral precursor to binge-type eating disorders. Elucidating precursors to LOC eating and binge-type eating disorders may refine developmental risk models of eating disorders and inform interventions.
We review evidence within constructs of the Negative Valence Systems (NVS) domain, as specified by the Research Domain Criteria framework. Based on published studies, we propose an integrated NVS model of binge-type eating-disorder risk.
Data implicate altered corticolimbic functioning, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and self-reported negative affect as possible risk factors. However, neuroimaging and physiological data in children and adolescents are sparse, and most prospective studies are limited to self-report measures.
We discuss a broad NVS framework for conceptualizing early risk for binge-type eating disorders. Future neural and behavioral research on the developmental trajectory of LOC and binge-type eating disorders is required.
We present new results on the the MBH-M∗ relation of X-ray obscured, red QSOs at high redshift (1.2<z<2.6). The sample is made of 21 red QSOs, nine of them are new sources for which near-infrared spectra have been obtained with SINFONI and XShooter observations at ESO VLT, and show a broad Hα component. The rest of the sample (12 sources) is made of sources taken from the literature with similar properties. From the broad Hα line we have computed the BH masses through the virial formula while stellar masses have been obtained through multi-component SED fitting.
We find that red QSOs preferentially lie on the local relation up to z ~ 2.6 with the most massive objects mainly located above it. We also studied the evolution of these sources on the MBH-M∗ plane compared to a sample of optically blue type–1 QSOs and we find that obscured red QSOs show a constant MBH/M∗ ratio consistent/slightly higher than the local one but lower than what has been found for blue QSOs. These sources may represent the intermediate phase (blow-out phase) between the major-merger induced starbursts which appear as ULIRGs and SMGs and the optical type–1 blue QSOs which are revealed once the dust and nuclear gas is cleared up.
In 1923 a Gallipoli veteran, not yet 40 years old, replaced a London-born man more than 20 years his senior as prime minister. The change might have been a mark of the times – the Anzacs coming into their own, in a nation their gallant deeds had made. But the new prime minister, Stanley Melbourne Bruce, was not an Anzac. He had been wounded at Gallipoli, but as a captain in a British regiment. And although born in the city after which he was named, the Cambridge-educated Bruce had spent nearly all his adult life in Britain.
Bruce was an Anglo-Australian. He would not have seen his enlistment in a British regiment in preference to the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) as an act of disloyalty or arrogance. Neither would most Australians of his time. In his imperial patriotism Bruce had much in common with most men of the First AIF. Bruce walked with a limp, a result of wartime injuries; this legacy was something else shared with other Australian men of his generation. The war exacted great costs long after 1918. Apart from returned men's suffering, there was the burden endured by wives and children, often amid official neglect. Many died prematurely, while some found themselves unable to earn a living as their health declined. Others battled on, and did their best to forget the horror. A few, such as Major General H.E. ‘Pompey’ Elliott, who had wept over Fromelles, killed themselves.
Many of those on the non-Labor side of politics previously willing to work with William Morris (‘Billy’) Hughes became more hostile to his leadership in the years following the war. The watershed December 1922 election delivered the balance of power to the new Country Party under Dr Earle Page. It would not support Hughes who, despite his abandonment of the Labor Party in 1916, had retained its taste for high levels of state intervention in the economy. Bruce – Hughes' treasurer and a political novice – was elevated to the prime ministership and oversaw the formation of a coalition between the Nationalists and Country Party.
Density functional theory and statistical calculations are combined to address the chemical stability and structure of epoxy functionalizations of single-layer graphene. Our computations show that at oxidation levels of O:C<0.5, the Gibbs free energy of formation per epoxide amounts to about 0.6 eV, and the structure of the epoxy functionalizations presents local order and long-range disorder. The positive energy value indicates that in air at p=1 bar and room temperature, epoxy functionalizations of graphene are unstable and prone to spontaneous reduction. Our calculations show also that formation and release of O2 is a slow process whose kinetics is controlled by large energy barriers, the formation of very stable intermediate species, and unlikely electronic transitions.
Density functional theory calculations are used to address the energetics of protons crossing “triple phase boundaries” based on Pd and barium zirconate. Our calculations show that the proton transfer reaction at these triple phase boundaries is controlled by the terminal layer of the electrolyte in contact with the metallic catalyst and gas phase. Hydrogen spilling onto the electrolyte surface is energetically favored at peripherical sites of the metal-electrolyte interface, and proton incorporation into the sub-surface region of the electrolyte involves energies of the order of 1 eV. At the triple phase boundary, the energy cost associated with the proton transfer reaction is controlled by both the nature of chemical contact and the Schottky barrier at the metal-electrolyte interface.
Density functional theory calculations are used to study the equilibrium energetics of protons on the surface and in the bulk of Y-doped BaZrO3. It is shown that protonic species in direct contact with Y dopants have energies lower than in perfect BaZrO3 by up to 0.4 eV. This energetic stabilization is achieved when the protonic species is in direct contact with two Y dopants. On the (001) surface of BaZrO3, protonic species are found to be energetically more stable than in the bulk by 1.1 eV and 1.6 eV on the BaO and ZrO2 surface terminations, respectively. At these terminations, the energy of protons recover the bulk value after penetrating three surface layers, and the energy cost associated with bulk incorporation is larger than 1 eV.
We explore the connection between black hole growth at the center of obscured quasars selected from the XMM-COSMOS survey and the physical properties of their host galaxies. We study a bolometric regime (<Lbol> ∼ 8 × 1045 erg s−1) where several theoretical models invoke major galaxy mergers as the main fueling channel for black hole accretion. To derive robust estimates of the host galaxy properties, we use an SED fitting technique to distinguish the AGN and host galaxy emission. We find that at z ∼ 1, ≈ 62% of Type-2 QSOs hosts are actively forming stars and that their rates are comparable to those measured for normal star-forming galaxies. The fraction of star-forming hosts increases with redshift: ≈ 71% at z ∼ 2, and 100% at z ∼ 3. We also find that the evolution from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 3 of the specific star-formation rate of the Type-2 QSO hosts is in excellent agreement with that measured for star-forming galaxies.
Graphene oxide holds great promise for future applications in nano-technology. The chemistry of this material is not well understood. This understanding is crucial to enable future applications of graphene oxide. In this study, experiments and density functional theory calculations are combined to elucidate the chemical properties of multilayer graphene oxide obtained by oxidizing epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide via the Hummers method. This study shows that at room temperature as prepared graphene oxide films exhibit a uniform and homogeneous structure, include a minimal amount of edges and holes, and have an oxidation ratio of about 0.44. The comparison with density-functional calculations shows that graphene oxide includes a minimal amount of intercalated water molecules and well-defined fractions of epoxide and hydroxyl groups.
We investigated a simple and low-cost route for the formation of metallic nanodots on Si substrates ordered in size and position and laterally isolated by SiO2. The method was based on a two-step process: (i) the formation of a nanopattern of ordered cylindrical pores on oxidized Si substrates through self-assembly of diblock copolymers, and successive oxide dry etching down to the Si; (ii) the deposition of gold nanodots and thermal diffusion over the nanopatterned oxide substrates. After diffusion, the nanodot density outside the nanopores was found to decrease, and most of the nanodots were found to saturate the nanopores. The process was followed in situ by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ex situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis for different thermal budgets. This patterned substrate can be used for catalyst mediated growth, for example, through vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), of nanowires for the formation of absorber materials in novel photovoltaic architectures.
Metal-free and Au-catalyzed silicon nanowires (Si-NWs) grown at low temperatures have been analyzed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their crystalline phase studied. All the observed nanowires are crystalline, grow along two different directions, <110> or <112>, and contain high density of planar defects, such as stacking faults (SFs) and twins. The defect size is comparable to the wire diameter for the metal-free process whilst it is much larger than the wire diameter for the Aucatalyzed Si-NWs. In this latter case parallel SFs may re-arrange and transform in a metastable rhombohedral 9R polytype structure whose formation mechanism is discussed.
We have investigated the stability of nano-amorphous region of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), fabricated by Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), dry etching, and ion implantation. Nano-structures, less than 100 nm in diameter and 20 nm thick, were either embedded in a crystalline environment or just isolated. We have observed nano-structure crystallization by in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in the 75°C-150°C temperature range. Re-crystallization of amorphous dots embedded in a crystalline region (either in the cubic or hexagonal phase) occurs by the movement of the interface at relatively low temperature (about 90°C). Instead, in the isolated structures the transition occurs at about 145°C by nucleation and growth. These results might be of relevance for the data retention of sub-50nm devices. Indeed, the more stable amorphous phase in self-standing regions indicates the better retention properties of isolated cells with respect to the traditional mushroom cell configuration.
Motivated by the well-posedness of birth-and-growth processes, a stochastic geometric differential equation and, hence, a stochastic geometric dynamical system are proposed. In fact, a birth-and-growth process can be rigorously modeled as a suitable combination, involving the Minkowski sum and the Aumann integral, of two very general set-valued processes representing nucleation and growth dynamics, respectively. The simplicity of the proposed geometric approach allows to avoid problems of boundary regularities arising from an analytical definition of the front growth. In this framework, growth is generally anisotropic and, according to a mesoscale point of view, is non local, i.e. at a fixed time instant, growth is the same at each point of the space.
Ion irradiation with 130 keV Ge+ or 120 keV Sb+ has modified, by thermal spike effect, the local atomic arrangement in the structure of as-deposited sputtered amorphous GeTe and Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. The changes in the local order have been analyzed by Raman and EXAFS spectroscopy. In addition the crystallization kinetic, measured by “in situ” time resolved reflectivity and optical microscope analysis, is found to be faster in the irradiated samples. The nucleation rate and the grain growth velocity are enhanced by a factor of about ten with respect to the unirradiated samples in the investigated temperature range (120°C –170°C).
The X-ray emission of the young Sun was much harder and intense than today and might have played a significant role in the evolution of complex organics in protoplanetary environments. We investigate the effects of soft X-rays on tryptophan molecules in aqueous solutions at room temperature. As results of the irradiation experiments we detect several light species indicative of fragmentation, together with large molecular structures such as tryptophan dipeptide and tripeptide. Complexification is more evident in H2O solution than in D2O, probably due to isotopic effects. The abundances of peptides depend on the irradiation dose and decrease with increasing energy deposition. Radicals such as D, OD, H and OH, induced by the X-ray interaction with solvents, play a major role in determining the final products.