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Apathy and depression are the two most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. Whereas neuroimaging studies have shown different neural pathways for these two symptoms, a clinical overlap between apathy and depression is frequently described.
To describe the prevalence of apathy and depression among elderly subjects with or without dementia criteria using specific diagnostic criteria for apathy and depression.
Subjects from an ongoing cross-sectional study were recruited in 4 centers (France, Indonesia, Spain, Argentina). Apathy and depression were assessed using the diagnostic criteria for apathy and for depression. Additionally, the apathy and dysphoria domains of the NPI-C (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician), as well as the 12 domains of the original NPI (Neuropsychiatric Inventory) were assessed.
431 subjects (mean age=74.6 ± 10.4 ; gender=♂ 29%) were recruited (France=100, Spain=90, Indonesia=182, Argentina=79). Among them, 25% were healthy elderly subjects, 9% had a diagnosis of MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment), 46% had a diagnosis of dementia (including AD, Lewy body, vascular, mixed and fronto-temporal dementia). In the overall population, the prevalence of apathy and depression were respectively 41% and 25%. More specifically, the prevalence of apathy and depression in the AD sample were 67% and 25%.
Diagnostic criteria for apathy and depression, as well as the NPI-C, are recent assessment methods in the field of dementia, developed to increase the accuracy of the clinical evaluation of BPSD. It is therefore critical to propose multicenter observational studies comparing these new tools with classical assessment methods.
Nuclear star clusters hosted by dwarf galaxies exhibit similar characteristics to high-mass, metal complex globular clusters. This type of globular clusters could, therefore, be former nuclei from accreted galaxies. M54 resides in the photometric center of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, at a distance where resolving stars is possible. M54 offers the opportunity to study a nucleus before the stripping of their host by the tidal field effects of the Milky Way. We use a MUSE data set to perform a detailed analysis of over 6600 stars. We characterize the stars by metallicity, age, and kinematics, identifying the presence of three stellar populations: a young metal-rich (YMR), an intermediate-age metal-rich (IMR), and an old metal-poor (OMP). The evidence suggests that the OMP population is the result of accretion of globular clusters in the center of the host, while the YMR population was born in-situ in the center of the OMP population.
he study of the kinematics of globular clusters (GCs) offers the possibility of unveiling their long term evolution and uncovering their yet unknown formation mechanism. Gaia DR2 has strongly revitalized this field and enabled the exploration of the 6D phase-space properties of Milky Way GCs, thanks to precision astrometry. However, to fully leverage on the power of precision astrometry, a thorough investigations of the data is required. In this contribution, we show that the study of the mean radial proper motion profiles of GCs offers an ideal benchmark to assess the presence of systematics in crowded fields. Our work demonstrates that systematics in Gaia DR2 for the closest 14 GCs are below the random measurement errors, reaching a precision of ∼0.015 mas yr−1 for mean proper motion measurements. Finally, through the analysis of the tangential component of proper motions, we report the detection of internal rotation in a sample of ∼50 GCs, and outline the implications of the presence of angular momentum for the formation mechanism of proto-GC. This result gives the first taste of the unparalleled power of Gaia DR2 for GCs science, in preparation for the subsequent data releases.
As a result of the slow action of two-body encounters, globular clusters develop mass segregation and attain a condition of only partial energy equipartition even in their central, most relaxed regions. Realistic numerical simulations show that, during the process, a radially-biased anisotropy profile slowly builds up, mimicking that resulting from incomplete violent relaxation. Commonly used dynamical models, such as the one-component King models, cannot describe these properties. Here we show that simple two-component models based on a distribution function originally conceived to describe elliptical galaxies, recently truncated and adapted to the context of globular clusters, can describe in detail what is observed in complex and realistic numerical simulations.
Due to the lack of basic information on water required by maize (Zea mays L.) in Brazil, the large amount of water applied usually exceeds crop requirements, wasting water and energy. In this study, we measured crop evapotranspiration (ETc) as evaporative heat flux from a centre pivot-irrigated maize plantation in Southern Brazil during winter and summer seasons, using the Bowen ratio method to evaluate how the degree of canopy-atmosphere coupling affects crop water needs and irrigation management. Irrigation requirements were determined by comparing ETc with reference evapotranspiration (ETo), derived from the Penman–Monteith equation and expressed as the ETc/ETo (Kc) ratio. In this study, the average Kc values obtained were 1.31 and 0.90 for the winter and summer, respectively. Using aerodynamic and canopy resistance measurements, the decoupling factor (Ω) was computed. Ω values tending to zero (0.09 and 0.20 for winter and summer, respectively) showed that strong coupling of maize plants to the atmosphere and sensitivity to high air temperatures, vapour pressure deficits and wind speed caused variations in Kc in relation to ETo ranges. During the experimental period, the Kc value ranged from 0.92 when the ETo exceeded 4 mm d−1 to 1.64 when the ETo was less than 2 mm d−1.
The use of roman numerals for stellar populations represents a classification approach to galaxy formation which is now well behind us. Nevertheless, the concept of a pristine generation of stars, followed by a protogalactic era, and finally the mainstream stellar population is a plausible starting point for testing our physical understanding of early star formation. This will be observationally driven as never before in the coming decade. In this paper, we search out observational tests of an idealised coeval and homogeneous distribution of population II stars. We examine the spatial distribution of quasars, globular clusters, and the integrated free electron density of the intergalactic medium, in order to test the assumption of homogeneity. Any real inhomogeneity implies a population II that is not coeval.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.
Although James Mill considered production and education to be two objectives of global welfare, he claimed that the former was not always consistent with the latter. On the one hand, production is necessary to provide humankind with the means of subsistence; on the other hand, if individuals allocate all their time to labor to the detriment of their own education, “neither intellect, virtue nor happiness can flourish upon the earth” (Mill  1825, p. 30). Mill argued that this problem might be solved by finding what he called “the precious middle point.” This point deserves special consideration: it acknowledges that there is a way in which education and production might be distributed in society in order to promote the greatest global welfare. The aim of this paper is to explain the relation between production and education through the working of the precious middle point.
James Mill’s account of the decision process is part of his theory of the human mind, which in turn is the cornerstone of his theory of education. Mill believed the end of education was to produce happiness, and that this happiness required action by the individual. A problem, as Mill saw it, was that intemperance might interfere with the decision process, causing individuals to take actions that do not promote their greatest happiness. This paper provides an interpretation of this process from a formal perspective, in the light of Mill’s view on intemperance.
We investigate the effect of retirement on memory using the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The availability of a panel data-set allows individual heterogeneity to be controlled for when estimating the effect of transitions into retirement on a commonly employed memory measure, word recall. We control for endogeneity of the retirement decision applying an instrumental variable technique to our fixed-effects transformation. Our main finding is that, conditional on the average non-linear memory age path of the typical individual, time spent in retirement has a positive effect on word recall.
The detection of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters has been hotly debated, with different observational methods delivering different outcomes for the same object. In order to understand these discrepancies, we construct detailed mock integral field spectroscopy (IFU) observations of globular clusters, starting from realistic Monte Carlo cluster simulations. The output is a data cube of spectra in a given field-of-view that can be analyzed in the same manner as real observations and compared to other (resolved) kinematic measurement methods. We show that the main discrepancies arise because the luminosity-weighted IFU observations can be strongly biased by the presence of a few bright stars that introduce a scatter in velocity dispersion measurements of several km s−1. We show that this intrinsic scatter can prevent a sound assessment of the central kinematics, and therefore should be fully taken into account to correctly interpret the signature of an IMBH.
We present the first measurement of the correlation between the map of the CMB lensing potential derived from the Planck nominal mission data and z ≳ 1.5 galaxies detected by Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) survey covering about 550 deg2. We detect the cross-power spectrum with a significance of ∼ 8.5σ, ruling out the absence of correlation at 9σ. We check detection with a number of null tests. The amplitude of cross-correlation and the galaxy bias are estimated using joint analysis of the cross-power spectrum and the galaxy survey auto-spectrum, which allows to break degeneracy between these parameters. The estimated galaxy bias is consistent with previous estimates of the bias for the H-ATLAS data, while the cross-correlation amplitude is higher than expected for a ΛCDM model. The content of this work is to appear in a forthcoming paper Bianchini, et al. (2014).
The volcano of Tallante (Pliocene) in the Betic Cordillera (Spain) exhumed a heterogeneous xenolith association, including ultramafic mantle rocks and diverse crustal lithologies. The latter include metagabbroids and felsic rocks characterized by quartz-rich parageneses containing spinel ± garnet ± sillimanite ± feldspars. Pressure–temperature estimates for felsic xenoliths overlap (at 0.7–0.8 GPa) those recorded by the mantle-derived peridotite xenoliths. Therefore, we propose that an intimate association of interlayered crust and mantle lithologies characterizes the crust–mantle boundary in this area. This scenario conforms to evidence provided by the neighbouring massifs of Ronda and Beni Bousera (and by other peri-Mediterranean deep crust/mantle sections) where exhumation of fossil crust–mantle boundary reveals that this boundary is not sharp. The results are discussed on the basis of recent geophysical and petrological studies emphasizing that in non-cratonic regions the crust–mantle boundary is often characterized by a gradational nature showing inter-fingering of heterogeneous lithologies. Silica-rich melts formed within the crustal domains intruded the surrounding mantle and induced metasomatism. The resulting hybrid crust–mantle domains thus provide suitable sources for exotic magma types such as the Mediterranean lamproites.