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The Sargur Group has been considered to be the oldest group (>3.0 Ga) in the Archaean sequence of the Dharwar Craton in south India, whereas the rocks of the Dharwar Supergroup are younger (between 3.0 and 2.55 Ga). The supracrustal units of the Sargur Group were deposited during the Archaean period. The Banavara quartzite forms part of the supracrustal Sargur Group and contains significant amounts of chromian spinel (Cr-spinel). Here, U–Pb and Hf isotopes of detrital zircons are integrated with compositional data and X-ray refinement parameters for Cr-spinels to decipher the provenance of the metasediments. Zircons show an age spectrum from 3.15 to 2.50 Ga, and juvenile Hf isotopic compositions (ϵHf = +0.8 to +6.4) with model ages between 3.3 and 3.0 Ga. Major- and trace-element contents of the Cr-spinels do not resemble those in the Sargur ultramafic rocks, but resemble well-characterized Archaean anorthosite-hosted chromites. Cr-spinel trace-element signatures indicate that they have undergone secondary alteration or metamorphism. X-ray refinement parameters for the Cr-spinels also resemble the anorthosite-hosted chromites. We conclude that the detrital minerals were probably derived from gneissic and anorthositic rocks of the Western Dharwar Craton, and that the Sargur Group sequences have experienced a younger (2.5 Ga) metamorphic overprint.
The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (−1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (−15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (−10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (−6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (−30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.
We present a new analytical method, which allows the simultaneous analysis of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I) in geological samples. To account for interferences of Fe on the spectral lines of F, of Al on Br-lines, and of Ca on I-lines, we prepared four new halogen-free calibration glasses. The new method is used to analyze various glass reference materials and crystal-hosted melt inclusions from the Azores. Our results show that our new method allows reliable and reproducible analyses of all four halogens in silicate glasses.
We present the first comprehensive detrital zircon U–Pb age dataset from Palaeozoic sandstones of Saudi Arabia, which provides new insights into the erosion history of the East African Orogen and sediment recycling in northern Gondwana. Five main age populations are present in varying amounts in the zircon age spectra, with age peaks at 625 Ma, 775 Ma, 980 Ma, 1840 Ma and 2480 Ma. Mainly igneous rocks of the Arabian–Nubian Shield are suggested to be the most prominent sources for the Ediacaran to middle Tonian zircon grains. Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean grains may be xenocrystic zircons or they have been recycled from older terrigenous sediment. A primary derivation from Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean basement is also possible, as rocks of such age occur in the vicinity. Approximately 4 % of the detrital zircons show Palaeozoic (340–541 Ma) ages. These grains are likely derived from Palaeozoic post-orogenic and anorogenic igneous rocks of NE Africa and Arabia. A few single grains gave up to Eoarchaean (3.6–4.0 Ga) ages, which are the oldest zircons yet described from Arabia and its vicinity. Their origin, however, is yet unknown. Detrital zircons with U–Pb ages of 1.0 Ga are present in varying amounts in all of the samples and are a feature of terrigenous sediment belonging to the Gondwana super-fan system with an East African – Arabian zircon province.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is one of the most important polymers for application as a dielectric layer in organic electronics, e.g. in organic field-effect transistors. The key to improve the transistor performance is the optimization of the interface between the semiconductor and the dielectric layer. Here, the surface order in thin films of PMMA copolymers with self-organized, semifluorinated (sf) building blocks, and crosslinkable units in single layers and double layers with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) is investigated. The chemistry of the sf copolymers is systematically varied and the influence on the self-organization in bulk and thin films is examined by a combination of scattering methods. The length of the semifluorinated side chains mainly determines the degree and type of order both in bulk as well as in thin films.
In this article we distinguish two versions of the non-identity problem: one involving positive well-being and one involving negative well-being. Intuitively, there seems to be a difference between the two versions of the problem. In the negative case it is clear that one ought to cause the better-off person to exist. However, it has recently been suggested that this is not so in the positive case. We argue that such an asymmetrical treatment of the two versions should be rejected and that this is evidence against views according to which it is permissible to cause the less well-off person to exist in the positive non-identity case.
Background: Following traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, maximising community participation leads to better physical and mental health outcomes.
Objectives: To determine the effectiveness and health system resource use of a group intervention (CarFreeMe TI) on community participation in people with complex trauma injuries.
Method: Randomised crossover trial of 54 participants, recruited from rehabilitation services in Adelaide, Australia. Inclusion criteria is a trauma injury, unable to return to full driving, aged over 18 years of age, adequate cognition/behavioural/communication abilities to participate in sessions and mobile. Exclusion criterion is living in setting where alternative transport is provided. Participants will be randomly assigned on a 1:1 allocation basis, to receiving Phase 1 CarFreeMe TI-group-based intervention or Phase 2 information related to transport options. Then, crossover to Phase 1 or 2 will occur. Primary outcome measure is community participation using a Global Positioning System. Secondary outcome measures include Community Mobility Self-efficacy Scale; CarFreeMe TI Transport Questionnaire, AQOL, EQ-5D-5L; Carer's Community Mobility Self-efficacy Scale and Modified Carer Strain Index for carers of participants. Outcome assessors will be blinded to group allocation. All analyses will be on an intention to treat basis with difference in community participation between the groups determined via a GLM ANOVA and the significance between groups on other measures using independent sample t-tests. It is hypothesised that the community mobility intervention (CarFreeMeTI) will result in increased community participation.
Discussion: The results will provide proof of concept information on the feasibility and inform allocation of resources for people with complex trauma injuries.
Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12616001254482.
In 2005, using a famous lemma of Atkin and Swinnerton-Dyer (Some properties of partitions, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (3) 4 (1954), 84–106), Yesilyurt (Four identities related to third order mock theta functions in Ramanujan’s lost notebook, Adv. Math. 190 (2005), 278–299) proved four identities for third order mock theta functions found on pages 2 and 17 in Ramanujan’s lost notebook. The primary purpose of this paper is to offer new proofs in the spirit of what Ramanujan might have given in the hope that a better understanding of the identities might be gained. Third order mock theta functions are intimately connected with ranks of partitions. We prove new dissections for two rank generating functions, which are keys to our proof of the fourth, and the most difficult, of Ramanujan’s identities. In the last section of this paper, we establish new relations for ranks arising from our dissections of rank generating functions.
Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies wish to ensure the impact of their HTAs. HTA impact assessment measures the influence of a HTA on decision-making and downstream to patient outcomes. Despite their potential to provide insights, the use of impact assessment frameworks by HTA agencies is limited. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of adopting HTA impact assessment frameworks is therefore important. Using a social cognitions lens, this study aims to provide insights into the enabling and hindering factors associated with the assessment of HTA impact by INAHTA members.
Using an interpretive description design, this cross-sectional study used semi-structured interviews of INAHTA members to gain insight into attitudes, social support, self-efficacy, barriers, and intentions towards HTA impact assessment. Transcriptions were analyzed using a social cognitions lens by two researchers using a constant comparative method to identify themes.
Twenty-six of forty-seven INAHTA members participated. Preliminary results showed that interviewees most often perceived support for assessing impact from their ministry of health or from agency staff. Most interviewees noted challenges to measuring impact at the right time and a lack of human resources, methods, and tools as internal barriers. A lack of transparency and a limited impact assessment culture were perceived as the main external barriers. Interviewees reported feeling fairly confident in overcoming internal barriers, but were less confident in overcoming external barriers. Providing feedback for improvement to HTA processes and making achievements visible were the most frequently reported advantages of assessing impact, whereas its time consuming nature was the biggest disadvantage.
This is the first study to use a social cognitions model to understand HTA impact assessment. Although the results of this convenience sample need to be interpreted with caution, they contribute knowledge on factors that facilitate and hinder agencies in the assessment of impact and illuminate opportunities for developing effective strategies to support HTA agencies in this area.
Increased dietary intake and tissue status of the long-chain n-3 PUFA, EPA and DHA, is associated with cardiovascular benefits. Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that concomitant nutritive intake of flavonoids may increase the conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to longer-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. We investigated the effects of increased ALA intake on fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids and erythrocytes in metabolically healthy men and women and whether fatty acid profiles and ALA conversion were affected by regular quercetin intake or sex. Subjects (n 74) were randomised to receive at least 3·3 g/d ALA with either 190 mg/d quercetin (ALA+quercetin) or placebo (ALA+placebo) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with 8-week intervention periods separated by an 8-week washout period. A total of seven subjects dropped out for personal reasons. Data from the remaining sixty-seven subjects (thirty-four males and thirty-three females) were included in the analysis. Both interventions significantly increased serum phospholipid ALA (ALA+placebo: +69·3 %; ALA+quercetin: +55·8 %) and EPA (ALA+placebo: +37·3 %; ALA+quercetin: +25·5 %). ALA + quercetin slightly decreased DHA concentration by 9·3 %. Erythrocyte ALA and EPA significantly increased with both interventions, whereas DHA decreased. Fatty acid composition did not differ between sexes. We found no effect of quercetin. Intake of 3·6 g/d ALA over an 8-week period resulted in increased ALA and EPA, but not DHA, in serum phospholipids and erythrocytes. Neither quercetin supplementation nor sex affected the increment of ALA and relative proportions of n-3 PUFA in serum phospholipids and erythrocytes.
Objectives: The health technology assessment (HTA) Core Model® is a tool for defining and standardizing the elements of HTA analyses within several domains for producing structured reports. This study explored the parallels between the Core Model and a national HTA report. Experiences from various European HTA agencies were also investigated to determine the Core Model's adaptability to national reports.
Methods: A comparison between a national report on Genetic Counseling, produced by the Cellule d'expertise médicale Luxembourg, and the Core Model was performed to identify parallels in terms of relevant and comparable assessment elements (AEs). Semi-structured interviews with five representatives from European HTA agencies were performed to assess their user experiences with the Core Model.
Results: The comparative study revealed that 50 percent of the total number (n = 144) of AEs in the Core Model were relevant for the national report. Of these 144 AEs from the Core Model, 34 (24 percent) were covered in the national report. Some AEs were covered only partly. The interviewees emphasized flexibility in using the Core Model and stated that the most important aspects to be evaluated include characteristics of the disease and technology, clinical effectiveness, economic aspects, and safety.
Conclusions: In the present study, the national report covered an acceptable number of AEs of the Core Model. These results need to be interpreted with caution because only one comparison was performed. The Core Model can be used in a flexible manner, applying only those elements that are relevant from the perspective of the technology assessment and specific country context.
In this article, a detailed introduction of the light extinction spectrometry (LES) diagnostics is given. LES allows the direct in situ measurement of the particle size distribution and absolute concentration of dust clouds levitating in plasmas. Using a relatively simple and compact experimental set-up, the dust cloud parameters can be recovered with a good accuracy making minimum assumptions on their physical properties. Special emphases are given to the inversion procedure of light extinction spectra and all the required particle shape, refractive index and light extinction models. The parameter range and the limitations of LES are discussed. Two measurements in low-pressure gas discharges are presented: (i) in a direct-current (DC) glow discharge in which nanoparticles are growing from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode and (ii) in an argon–silane radio-frequency discharge. They demonstrate the capabilities of the LES technique to characterise, in situ and in real-time, the growth dynamics of nanoparticles in the size range 5–100 nm and volume concentrations in the range from a few ppb to a few ppm.
A total of 70 Nellore bulls (18 ± 3 months of age) were used to determine the effects of crude glycerine (CG) replacing starch- v. fibre-based energy ingredients in low (LC; 0·40 concentrate) or high concentrate (HC; 0·60 concentrate) – on a dry matter (DM) basis – on DM intake (DMI), methane emissions and growth. Ten bulls were slaughtered (reference group) to obtain the carcass gain (CrG). The 60 remaining bulls (374 ± 24·5 kg) were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two concentrate levels, LC or HC; and three feeding regimes, FR). The FR were: CO – without CG and maize as an ingredient of concentrate; CGM – inclusion of CG (0·10 of DM) replacing maize in the concentrate; and CGSH – inclusion of CG (0·10 of DM) replacing soybean hulls (SH) in the concentrate. Bulls fed LC or HC had similar DMI (kg/d) and growth. The DMI and average daily gain (ADG) were similar among FR. Concentrate level and FR tended to interact for methane emissions (g) per kg DMI. Bulls fed CGM had a greater G : F (g CrG/kg DMI) than those fed CO or CGSH diets. Increasing dietary concentrate (0·40–0·60) did not affect intake, methane emissions, or growth. Inclusion of CG in diets to replace SH in LC diets tended to decrease methane emissions from animals. When CG replaces SH in the diets, CrG and G:F (g CrG/kg DMI) are decreased compared with bulls fed CGM.
“How does one review a monument?” Richard Crawford wondered when he sat down to review the first AmeriGrove in 1987; it puts “the conventional notion of a review to the test.” Some thirty years later, with the new AmeriGrove twice the size of the first edition and with the U.S. soundscape becoming more global and hybrid by the day, the challenge has increased for the potential reviewer. Indeed, how do you review a collective enterprise with up to 1500 authors and 9300 entries (some old, some new) along a timeline of some 350 years? For a professional insider like Richard Crawford the test was tough enough, but to assess its virtues and faults from a European perch, it is positively daunting, particularly when post-national, global crosscurrents continue to inspire a constantly evolving U.S. musical scene.