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Clinical Team Meetings (CTM) are weekly multidisciplinary (MDT) meetings to review and discuss patients’ clinical care at Reaside Clinic, a medium secure inpatient forensic unit. Last year, there were significant difficulties in releasing nurses from ward duties to attend CTM, with effects on CTM efficiency and patients’ involvement and satisfaction in care. Furthermore, a hospital ‘protected mealtimes’ deadline commencing at 1230 meant additional pressure and further impacted patient attendance when meetings overran. The MDT (comprising doctors, nurses, psychologists, occupational therapists, pharmacists and admin staff) worked together to generate solutions, formulating a QI project to try to make improvements. Three primer drivers were: increasing patient satisfaction, increasing staff participation and increasing CTM efficiency.
The MDT generated multiple change ideas to test to improve CTM experience and outcomes. Actions implemented included review of timetabling of patients to ensure adequate timekeeping and ensuring availability of attending ward staff, defining patient expectations from CTM through increased communication, and seeking patient feedback on satisfaction or engagement after each CTM through anonymous questionnaires. Data were collected at CTMs from February to April 2022, retrospectively compared to reference data collected before QI actions were implemented. A Microsoft OneDrive document was shared between the MDT to ensure accurate data collection, with information collected on CTM finish time, number of patients offered to attend, number of patients who did attend and anonymous patient satisfaction feedback from questionnaires.
Early indications show improvement in meeting timelines and increased staff satisfaction with the CTM process, with data collection ongoing. Baseline results from September 2021 show an average of only 2 of between 13–15 patients attending weekly, in addition to finishing beyond the 1230 target on almost all occasions. Anecdotal evidence from the MDT showed poor patient satisfaction and engagement with the process before QI changes were implemented. Full results will be available by the time of presentation; currently, an average of 4 patients have attended CTM each week with all sessions finishing on time since implementation of changes.
Patient involvement in care and person-centred care are key to improving engagement and satisfaction with inpatient psychiatric management in forensic settings. Targeted multiple change ideas implemented by the MDT through this QI aim to improve patient satisfaction through enabling increased opportunity to attend weekly CTM, with modifications to the CTM process from key staff. Preliminary results show increased opportunity of patients to attend CTM, increased staff and patient satisfaction, and increased CTM efficiency.
The congenital left ventricular diverticulum is a rare cardiac malformation, and it may associate with Cantrell’s Pentalogy with other cardiac defects. However, isolated ventricular diverticulum without any other cardiac defect in complete Cantrell’s syndrome is very rare. We describe a 6-year-old male patient with a complete Cantrell’s syndrome with isolated left ventricular diverticulum.
Male involvement in family planning results in improved reproductive health and gender outcomes for women. In India, the use of family planning methods remains largely female-dominated. Recent media reports have indicated a rapid decline in male sterilization use in the past few years. This study aimed to assess the trends in, patterns of and factors associated with the use of male sterilization and male spacing methods in India using data from four rounds of the National Family Health Survey, conducted from 1992 to 2016. Bivariate analysis was done to see the trends in, and patterns of, male sterilization and spacing methods, while multinomial logistic regression was used to understand the factors associated with male spacing methods and sterilization. The results show a marked decline in the prevalence of male sterilization from 1992–93 (3.5%) to 2015–16 (0.3%) in India. Of the 640 districts, only 21 had a more than 2% prevalence of male sterilization. Scheduled tribe couples were two times more likely to use male sterilization than other (upper/no caste) groups. Couples from the northern region were significantly more likely to use male sterilization (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.43–1.97) compared with those from the south. There was a regional disparity in male condom use, with a very small proportion of couples in the southern (1.1%), north-eastern (2.4%) and eastern (3.3%) regions using the method compared with couples from the northern region (9.7%). Couples from the northern (aOR: 8.89, 95% CI: 8.44–9.38), north-eastern (aOR: 11.37, 95% CI: 10.62–12.18), eastern (aOR: 6.96, 95% CI: 6.60–7.34), western (aOR: 4.65, 95% CI: 4.40–4.92) and central (aOR: 10.89, 95% CI: 10.35–11.46) regions were also significantly more likely to use male spacing methods than those from southern India. Therefore, a greater focus on increasing the use of male sterilization and condoms is required in India to reduce the gender disparity in the use of family planning methods.
In the UK, postnatal depression is more common in British South Asian women than White Caucasion women. Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended as a first-line treatment, but there is little evidence for the adaptation of CBT for postnatal depression to ensure its applicability to different ethnic groups.
To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a CBT-based positive health programme group intervention in British South Asian women with postnatal depression.
We have designed a multicentre, two-arm, partially nested, randomised controlled trial with 4- and 12-month follow-up, comparing a 12-session group CBT-based intervention (positive health programme) plus treatment as usual with treatment as usual alone, for British South Asian women with postnatal depression. Participants will be recruited from primary care and appropriate community venues in areas of high South Asian density across the UK. It has been estimated that randomising 720 participants (360 into each group) will be sufficient to detect a clinically important difference between a 55% recovery rate in the intervention group and a 40% recovery rate in the treatment-as-usual group. An economic analysis will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the positive health programme. A qualitative process evaluation will explore barriers and enablers to study participation and examine the acceptability and impact of the programme from the perspective of British South Asian women and other key stakeholders.
Catatonia, a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome, has few studies of sufficient scale to clarify its epidemiology or pathophysiology. We aimed to characterise demographic associations, peripheral inflammatory markers and outcome of catatonia.
Electronic healthcare records were searched for validated clinical diagnoses of catatonia. In a case–control study, demographics and inflammatory markers were compared in psychiatric inpatients with and without catatonia. In a cohort study, the two groups were compared in terms of their duration of admission and mortality.
We identified 1456 patients with catatonia (of whom 25.1% had two or more episodes) and 24 956 psychiatric inpatients without catatonia. Incidence was 10.6 episodes of catatonia per 100 000 person-years. Patients with and without catatonia were similar in sex, younger and more likely to be of Black ethnicity. Serum iron was reduced in patients with catatonia [11.6 v. 14.2 μmol/L, odds ratio (OR) 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45–0.95), p = 0.03] and creatine kinase was raised [2545 v. 459 IU/L, OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.29–1.81), p < 0.001], but there was no difference in C-reactive protein or white cell count. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were significantly associated with catatonia, but there were small numbers of positive results. Duration of hospitalisation was greater in the catatonia group (median: 43 v. 25 days), but there was no difference in mortality after adjustment.
In the largest clinical study of catatonia, we found catatonia occurred in approximately 1 per 10 000 person-years. Evidence for a proinflammatory state was mixed. Catatonia was associated with prolonged inpatient admission but not with increased mortality.
To assess the frequency of low self-esteem among adolescents of secondary school level in private schools of Karachi
It was a cross-sectional descriptive study done in ten private schools of Karachi for a period of 6 months. The proposal of the study was accepted by ethical committee of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi (called Institutional Review Board or IRB).The subjects fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled after obtaining informed consent by their parents. A semi-structured Performa was used to assess students’ particulars and included Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire as a part of Performa. The data were analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Frequencies & percentages were generated for the level of self-esteem.Stratified analysis was done with a p value <0.05 taken as significant.
Out of the 246 students, 39.8% were of 14yrs of age, 36.2% were 15 years of age, while only 24% of adolescents were 16 years of age. Majority (64.2%) of the students were males while females were 35.8%. 70.3% of the students had normal level of self-esteem, whereas 28.9% of students had low self-esteem and only 0.8% of students had high self-esteem. Relationship of all the variables was found to be non-significant except that of educational level (p-value 0.047).
Self-esteem was found to be normal in most of the adolescents of secondary school level but still more than 1/4th of the study participants had low self-esteem which if assessed and addressed early may save the individuals from mental health issues as well as problems at work and home life.Having a better understanding of self-esteem, can help us to identify the adolescents who have low self-esteem and are predisposed to develop mental health difficulties in future.It can lead to not only early intervention and reducing the burden of disease but also help in developing programs to help improve self-esteem in adolescents,hence increasing their overall motivation and productivity.
Suicide accounts for 2.2% of all years of life lost worldwide. We aimed to establish whether infectious epidemics are associated with any changes in the incidence of suicide or the period prevalence of self-harm, or thoughts of suicide or self-harm, with a secondary objective of establishing the frequency of these outcomes.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and AMED were searched from inception to 9 September 2020. Studies of infectious epidemics reporting outcomes of (a) death by suicide, (b) self-harm or (c) thoughts of suicide or self-harm were identified. A random-effects model meta-analysis for the period prevalence of thoughts of suicide or self-harm was conducted.
In total, 1354 studies were screened with 57 meeting eligibility criteria, of which 7 described death by suicide, 9 by self-harm, and 45 thoughts of suicide or self-harm. The observation period ranged from 1910 to 2020 and included epidemics of Spanish Flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome, human monkeypox, Ebola virus disease and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Regarding death by suicide, data with a clear longitudinal comparison group were available for only two epidemics: SARS in Hong Kong, finding an increase in suicides among the elderly, and COVID-19 in Japan, finding no change in suicides among children and adolescents. In terms of self-harm, five studies examined emergency department attendances in epidemic and non-epidemic periods, of which four found no difference and one showed a reduction during the epidemic. In studies of thoughts of suicide or self-harm, one large survey showed a substantial increase in period prevalence compared to non-epidemic periods, but smaller studies showed no difference. As a secondary objective, a meta-analysis of thoughts of suicide and self-harm found that the pooled prevalence was 8.0% overall (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2–12.0%; 14 820 of 99 238 cases in 24 studies) over a time period of between seven days and six months. The quality assessment found 42 studies were of low quality, nine of moderate quality and six of high quality.
There is little robust evidence on the association of infectious epidemics with suicide, self-harm and thoughts of suicide or self-harm. There was an increase in suicides among the elderly in Hong Kong during SARS and no change in suicides among young people in Japan during COVID-19, but it is unclear how far these findings may be generalised. The development of up-to-date self-harm and suicide statistics to monitor the effect of the current pandemic is an urgent priority.
Identifying developmental endophenotypes on the pathway between genetics and behavior is critical to uncovering the mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental conditions. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored whether early disruptions in visual attention are a unique or shared candidate endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We calculated the duration of the longest look (i.e., peak look) to faces in an array-based eye-tracking task for 335 14-month-old infants with and without first-degree relatives with ASD and/or ADHD. We leveraged parent-report and genotype data available for a proportion of these infants to evaluate the relation of looking behavior to familial (n = 285) and genetic liability (using polygenic scores, n = 185) as well as ASD and ADHD-relevant temperament traits at 2 years of age (shyness and inhibitory control, respectively, n = 272) and ASD and ADHD clinical traits at 6 years of age (n = 94).
Results showed that longer peak looks at the face were associated with elevated polygenic scores for ADHD (β = 0.078, p = .023), but not ASD (β = 0.002, p = .944), and with elevated ADHD traits in mid-childhood (F(1,88) = 6.401, p = .013, $\eta _p^2$=0.068; ASD: F (1,88) = 3.218, p = .076), but not in toddlerhood (ps > 0.2). This pattern of results did not emerge when considering mean peak look duration across face and nonface stimuli. Thus, alterations in attention to faces during spontaneous visual exploration may be more consistent with a developmental endophenotype of ADHD than ASD. Our work shows that dissecting paths to neurodevelopmental conditions requires longitudinal data incorporating polygenic contribution, early neurocognitive function, and clinical phenotypic variation.
Background: The inappropriate and irrational use of antibiotics both in humans and animals causes bacterial resistance. Bacterial resistance is common in low- and middle-income countries, including Bangladesh. Bangladesh has very limited information on antibiotic use and associated resistance. We sought to better understand antibiotic use in low-resource settings for the development of effective strategies to address inappropriate antibiotic use. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among hospitalized children <5 years of age in a tertiary-care hospital in Barishal, Bangladesh, to collect data on antibiotic use. We collected data from 400 children during February–April 2019. Results: Among these 400 children, >50% were aged <1 year, and >60% of these children were boys. The average hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1–14). Most of the children had history of diarrhea and 18% had pneumonia. Most children (82%) were prescribed antibiotics. A combined form of antibiotics was prescribed for 17% of these children. In total, 14 different antibiotics were used. The most commonly used antibiotic was ceftriaxone (57%) followed by azithromycin (14%). The parental route was mostly preferred (75%) for antibiotic administration. Conclusions: Antibiotic prescription was common in children aged <5 years visiting a tertiary-care hospital. Most of the prescribed antibiotics were broad spectrum, which can promote bacterial resistance. Further studies are needed to identify the factors associated with overuse of antibiotics and bacterial resistance in low-resource settings.
This study explored how social exclusion predicted adolescent wellbeing via stress, academic self-efficacy, and school satisfaction. Data were collected from 328 adolescents in Turkey. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative effects of social exclusion on wellbeing were partially mediated by stress, academic self-efficacy, and school satisfaction. Given its important role in students’ social, academic, and psychological development, researchers and practitioners may need to give more attention to social exclusion as a key risk factor for decreased wellbeing.
Compared to the general population, people with schizophrenia have a substantially higher risk of premature mortality which translates into a 10–15 year reduction in life expectancy. The aim of this investigation was to determine if symptoms (including aggression, hallucinations or delusions, and depression) or the environmental and functional status of people with schizophrenia contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group.
We identified cases of schizophrenia, aged ≥15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of specific symptoms, activities of daily living (ADLs), living conditions, occupational and recreational activities (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales) on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10) using Cox regression.
We identified 4270 schizophrenia cases (170 deaths) in the observation period. After controlling for a broad range of covariates, mortality was not significantly associated with hallucinations and delusions or overactive-aggressive behaviour, but was associated with subclinical depression (adjusted HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) and ADL impairment (adjusted HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.9).
Severity of symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, was less important in predicting mortality than subclinical depression and difficulties carrying out activities of daily living. The overall picture appears to be one where the highest all-cause mortality risk is in service users who are least visible to clinical teams.
But with this story, well, he [Ovid] can't help being the Roman he is, he can't help fixating on what it is that girls don't have under their togas, and it's him who can't imagine what girls would ever do without one. (Smith 2007: 97)
The story of Iphis in Book 9 of Ovid's Metamorphoses is unique in Latin literature. Roman (male) writers make sense of female same-sex desire by casting one woman in the partnership in the active, penetrative role and characterising her as sex-mad (Hallett 1997). Ovid, by contrast, provides us with the singular tale of deep-felt desire felt by one woman or girl for another that is not reduced to this hierarchical, hyper-sexualised stereotype. That is, at least, at the story's beginning. In the end, Iphis’ miraculous sex-change from female to male enables Iphis and the beloved Ianthe to marry, seemingly shutting down any possibility of a lesbian reality and reasserting the Roman heteronormative marital paradigm. This ending has therefore disappointed prominent writers such as classicist Judith Hallett and novelist Ali Smith, who gives this ancient myth an innovative take in her acclaimed Boy Meets Girl (2007). This chapter contends, however, that Iphis’ transformation is in fact unresolved and that such disappointment is therefore misplaced. Iphis’ metamorphosis can be considered in terms of biological sex (Wheeler 1997: 196, 200; Pintabone 2002: 277; Oliensis 2009: 109; Lateiner 2009: 138) but I will show that the change is strictly speaking one of social gender: regarding Iphis’ biological sex the text is silent (Langlands 2002: 99–101; Ormand 2005: 99–100; Ormand 2009: 217–18; Boehringer 2007a: 254–5; Lindheim 2010: 186–8).
Moreover, the Metamorphosesis a poem about changing forms and Iphis’ change should be considered in the context of Ovid's other transformations. Scholarship on the passage overlooks this aspect as it has focused on the rich opportunities to explore ‘what the Iphis story itself can tell us about Ovidian/Roman concepts of gender and sexuality’ (Kamen 2012: 22). Ovidian transformations characteristically lack resolution: as scholars repeatedly remark, no metamorphosis in the poem is fully resolved since elements of a character's final form are always-already present, such as Lycaon's lupine ferocity or Anaxarete's heart of stone.
Dietary patterns describe the combination of foods and beverages in a diet and the frequency of habitual consumption. Better understanding of childhood dietary patterns and antenatal influences could inform intervention strategies to prevent childhood obesity. We derived empirical dietary patterns in 1142 children (average age 6·0 (sd 0·2) years) in New Zealand, whose mothers had participated in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study and explored associations with measures of body composition. Participants (Children of SCOPE) had their diet assessed by FFQ, and dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified: ‘Healthy’, ‘Traditional’ and ‘Junk’. Associations between dietary patterns and measures of childhood body composition (waist, hip, arm circumferences, BMI, bioelectrical impedance analysis-derived body fat % and sum of skinfold thicknesses (SST)) were assessed by linear regression, with adjustment for maternal influences. Children who had higher ‘Junk’ dietary pattern scores had 0·24 (sd 0·08; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·13) cm greater arm and 0·44 (sd 0·05; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·10) cm greater hip circumferences and 1·13 (sd 0·07; 95 % CI 0·03, 0·12) cm greater SST and were more likely to be obese (OR 1·74; 95 % CI 1·07, 2·82); those with higher ‘Healthy’ pattern scores were less likely to be obese (OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·39, 1·00). In a large mother–child cohort, a dietary pattern characterised by high-sugar and -fat foods was associated with greater adiposity and obesity risk in children aged 6 years, while a ‘Healthy’ dietary pattern offered some protection against obesity. Targeting unhealthy dietary patterns could inform public health strategies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.
A large and growing body of research suggests that maternal depressive symptoms and child externalizing behaviors are strongly associated. Theoretical arguments supported by these findings led to the question of whether maternal depressive symptoms are transactionally associated with child externalizing behaviors. Using 5-year nationally representative longitudinal data from Turkey (N = 1,052), we estimated a transactional bivariate autoregressive latent trajectory model addressing this question. This model disaggregated the association of the two processes into two components: (a) the association of the interindividual differences in the trajectories; and (b) the intradyad association of the changes in maternal depressive symptoms with the changes in child externalizing behaviors. Although maternal depressive symptoms were robustly associated with child externalizing behaviors at age 3, the transactional associations of the two processes were small prior to age 5 and absent at ages 5 to 7. Furthermore, maternal harsh parenting did not have a mediating role in the limited transactional association of maternal depressive symptoms with child externalizing behaviors.
To assess interdependent effects of autonomous motivation to limit sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to SSB and healthy beverage (HB) intake in mother–adolescent and father–adolescent dyads.
Adopting a dyadic cross-sectional design, the actor–partner interdependence modelling (APIM) approach was used to construct and analyse two APIM for mother–adolescent and father–adolescent dyads. The first model assessed actor effects (individual’s autonomous motivation associated with his/her own beverage intake) and partner effects (individual’s autonomous motivation associated with another family member’s beverage consumption) of autonomous motivation on SSB consumption. The second model assessed actor and partner effects of autonomous motivation on HB intake.
Two Internet-based surveys were completed in participant households.
Data from a demographically representative US sample of parent–adolescent dyads (1225 mother–adolescent dyads, 424 father–adolescent dyads) were used.
In the first model (autonomous motivation on SSB consumption), actor effects were significant for adolescents, but not for parents. Partner effects were significant for mother–adolescent, but not father–adolescent dyads. In the second model (autonomous motivation on HB intake), actor effects were significant for adolescents and parents in all dyadic combinations. Regarding partner effects, adolescent autonomous motivation had a significant effect on HB intake for mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal autonomous motivation had a significant effect on adolescent HB intake. No partner effects for HB were identified for fathers.
We found significant interdependent effects of autonomous motivation in relation to SSB and HB intake in mother–adolescent and father–adolescent dyads for eleven out of sixteen pathways modelled.