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The Türkiye-Syria earthquake struck eleven provinces directly in Türkiye on February 6, 2023. Emergency nutrition care is indispensable for sustaining the lives of victims and rescue personnel. To optimally support their wellbeing, emergency food must be both healthy (i.e., aligned with dietary guidelines) and safe. However, globally, there is a dearth of research on the emergency nutrition conditions in shelters in the immediate aftermath of natural disasters. This lack of scientific evidence could limit the extent to which nutritional gaps can be identified and remedied for future relief efforts. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrition environment and nutritional quality of emergency meals distributed to survivors in Malatya, a heavily affected province in Türkiye. The rapid assessment was conducted in thirteen locations by using an embedded case-study design to evaluate the nutrition environment both quantitatively and qualitatively. Meals served to earthquake victims and volunteers were found to be insufficient in protein, fat, fiber, vitamin C, calcium and iron, but sodium levels were higher than the maximum threshold in many of the centers. The qualitative analysis illustrated insufficiency in three domains of the emergency food and nutrition environment: foods and beverages offered, cooking/food preparation and food safety, and dining areas and other facilities. Given the major nutritional gaps identified in this study, future disaster preparations should implement emergency nutrition plans that ensure healthy, nutritious, and safe food for survivors. Better coordination and use of technology are necessary for interventions to prevent malnutrition.
The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of fragmented QRS and its associations with clinical findings and prognosis in children diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy with or without left ventricular non-compaction.
This retrospective study was conducted between 2010 and 2020. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were classified into two groups according to the presence of left ventricular non-compaction: Dilated cardiomyopathy with left ventricular non-compaction and dilated cardiomyopathy without left ventricular non-compaction. Patients were also divided into two groups according to the presence of fragmented QRS (fragmented QRS group and non-fragmented QRS group).
Twenty-three of 44 patients (52.3%) were male. Among left ventricular non-compaction patients, the fragmented QRS group had more complex ventricular arrhythmias (p = 0.003). Patients with fragmented QRS had a significantly higher rate of major adverse cardiac events and/or cardiac death in both cardiomyopathy groups (p = 0.003 and p = 0.005). However, the rate of major adverse cardiac events and/or cardiac death was similar between dilated cardiomyopathy patients with and without left ventricular non-compaction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of fragmented QRS strongly predicts major adverse cardiac events and/or cardiac death (odds ratio, 31.186; 95% confidence interval, 2.347–414.307). Although the survival rates between cardiomyopathy groups were similar, patients with fragmented QRS had a markedly lower survival rate during the follow-up period, as mean of 15 months (p = 0.001).
Our study showed that the presence of fragmented QRS may be an important ECG sign predicting an major adverse cardiac event and/or cardiac death in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We believe that recognising fragmented QRS could be valuable in forecasting patient prognosis and identifying high-risk patients who require additional support.
This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular manifestations and surveillance of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and to determine the correlation of echocardiographic findings with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings.
Forty-four children diagnosed as MIS-C with cardiac involvement were enrolled in this observational descriptive study. The diagnosis of MIS-C was made according to the criteria of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinical findings, laboratory parameters, and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up were evaluated. Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed on 28 (64%) cases. The 1-year follow-up imaging was performed in all cases with abnormal initial cardiac magnetic resonance findings.
Forty-four patients (56.8% male) with a mean age of 8.5 ± 4.8 years were enrolled in this study. There was a significant positive correlation between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (mean: 162 ± 444.4 pg/ml) and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (mean: 10,054 ± 11,604 pg/ml) (p < 0.01). Number of cases with an electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormality was 34 (77%) and 31 (70%), respectively. Twelve cases (45%) had left ventricular systolic dysfunction and 14 (32%) cases had pericardial effusion on admission. Three cases (11%) had cardiac magnetic resonance findings that may be attributed to the presence of myocardial inflammation, and pericardial effusion was present in seven (25%) cases. Follow-up cardiac magnetic resonances of all cases were normal. Cardiac abnormalities were completely resolved in all except two cases.
Myocardial involvement can be seen during acute disease, but MIS-C generally does not lead to prominent damage during a year of surveillance. Cardiac magnetic resonance is a valuable tool to evaluate the degree of myocardial involvement in cases with MIS-C.
Methotrexate (MTX) is a cytotoxic immunosuppressant that is widely used in the treatment of tumours, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. This study aims to evaluate the effects of whey proteins on MTX-induced liver and kidney damage by focusing on oxidant–antioxidant systems and eating habits. The study was conducted in four groups of thirty Sprague–Dawley rats (control, control + whey protein concentrate (WPC), MTX, MTX + WPC). A single dose of 20 mg/kg MTX was administered intraperitoneally to the MTX groups. Control and MTX groups were given 2 g/kg WPC by oral gavage every day for 10 d. At the end of day 10, blood samples were drawn and liver and kidney tissues were removed. MTX administration increased the lipid peroxidation level and decreased glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in the liver and kidney. Administration of WPC significantly reduced the damage caused by MTX in the liver and kidney. While a decrease in serum urea level and an increase in serum creatinine level were detected in the MTX group, WPC administration reversed these results up to control group levels. Administration of WPC to the MTX group significantly reversed the histopathological damage scores of the liver and kidney. WPC administration ameliorated the MTX-induced oxidative damage in the liver and kidney tissues due to its antioxidant properties. Liver and kidney damage can be prevented by using whey proteins as a nutraceutical in MTX therapy. In conclusion, whey proteins demonstrated a protective effect against MTX-induced liver and kidney damage.
Optimum nutrition plays a major role in the achievement and maintenance of good health. The Nutrition Society of the UK and Ireland and the Sabri Ülker Foundation, a charity based in Türkiye and focused on improving public health, combined forces to highlight this important subject. A hybrid conference was held in Istanbul, with over 4000 delegates from sixty-two countries joining the proceedings live online in addition to those attending in person. The primary purpose was to inspire healthcare professionals and nutrition policy makers to better consider the role of nutrition in their interactions with patients and the public at large to reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The event provided an opportunity to share and learn from different approaches in the UK, Türkiye and Finland, highlighting initiatives to strengthen research in the nutritional sciences and translation of that research into nutrition policy. The presenters provided evidence of the links between nutrition and disease risk and emphasised the importance of minimising risk and implementing early treatment of diet-related disease. Suggestions were made including improving health literacy and strengthening policies to improve the quality of food production and dietary behaviour. A multidisciplinary approach is needed whereby Governments, the food industry, non-governmental groups and consumer groups collaborate to develop evidence-based recommendations and appropriate joined-up policies that do not widen inequalities. This summary of the proceedings will serve as a gateway for those seeking to access additional information on nutrition and health across the globe.
This research was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and purchasing behaviour of consumers regarding lactose-free foods. Study data were collected from 1882 individuals with the help of a questionnaire form. Attitudes towards animal welfare, healthy nutrition and gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. The majority (86.6%) of the participants reported that they had heard of the concept of lactose-free foods before, but more than half (67.0%) did not report buying them because of their higher costs compared to regular products and lack of sufficient information. Not causing gas/bloating (32.5%) and being healthier (28.3%) were shown to be the most significant motivational factors in purchasing lactose-free foods (P < 0.05). The factors affecting purchase of lactose-free products were education, employment status, history of having a food intolerance test and animal welfare perception together with higher scores from the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, and attitude scale for healthy nutrition (P < 0.05). Body mass index was not found to be an effective factor determining purchase intention. The results provide a general overview of consumers, however, further studies on other demographic groups are needed.
Clinical Team Meetings (CTM) are weekly multidisciplinary (MDT) meetings to review and discuss patients’ clinical care at Reaside Clinic, a medium secure inpatient forensic unit. Last year, there were significant difficulties in releasing nurses from ward duties to attend CTM, with effects on CTM efficiency and patients’ involvement and satisfaction in care. Furthermore, a hospital ‘protected mealtimes’ deadline commencing at 1230 meant additional pressure and further impacted patient attendance when meetings overran. The MDT (comprising doctors, nurses, psychologists, occupational therapists, pharmacists and admin staff) worked together to generate solutions, formulating a QI project to try to make improvements. Three primer drivers were: increasing patient satisfaction, increasing staff participation and increasing CTM efficiency.
The MDT generated multiple change ideas to test to improve CTM experience and outcomes. Actions implemented included review of timetabling of patients to ensure adequate timekeeping and ensuring availability of attending ward staff, defining patient expectations from CTM through increased communication, and seeking patient feedback on satisfaction or engagement after each CTM through anonymous questionnaires. Data were collected at CTMs from February to April 2022, retrospectively compared to reference data collected before QI actions were implemented. A Microsoft OneDrive document was shared between the MDT to ensure accurate data collection, with information collected on CTM finish time, number of patients offered to attend, number of patients who did attend and anonymous patient satisfaction feedback from questionnaires.
Early indications show improvement in meeting timelines and increased staff satisfaction with the CTM process, with data collection ongoing. Baseline results from September 2021 show an average of only 2 of between 13–15 patients attending weekly, in addition to finishing beyond the 1230 target on almost all occasions. Anecdotal evidence from the MDT showed poor patient satisfaction and engagement with the process before QI changes were implemented. Full results will be available by the time of presentation; currently, an average of 4 patients have attended CTM each week with all sessions finishing on time since implementation of changes.
Patient involvement in care and person-centred care are key to improving engagement and satisfaction with inpatient psychiatric management in forensic settings. Targeted multiple change ideas implemented by the MDT through this QI aim to improve patient satisfaction through enabling increased opportunity to attend weekly CTM, with modifications to the CTM process from key staff. Preliminary results show increased opportunity of patients to attend CTM, increased staff and patient satisfaction, and increased CTM efficiency.
The congenital left ventricular diverticulum is a rare cardiac malformation, and it may associate with Cantrell’s Pentalogy with other cardiac defects. However, isolated ventricular diverticulum without any other cardiac defect in complete Cantrell’s syndrome is very rare. We describe a 6-year-old male patient with a complete Cantrell’s syndrome with isolated left ventricular diverticulum.
Male involvement in family planning results in improved reproductive health and gender outcomes for women. In India, the use of family planning methods remains largely female-dominated. Recent media reports have indicated a rapid decline in male sterilization use in the past few years. This study aimed to assess the trends in, patterns of and factors associated with the use of male sterilization and male spacing methods in India using data from four rounds of the National Family Health Survey, conducted from 1992 to 2016. Bivariate analysis was done to see the trends in, and patterns of, male sterilization and spacing methods, while multinomial logistic regression was used to understand the factors associated with male spacing methods and sterilization. The results show a marked decline in the prevalence of male sterilization from 1992–93 (3.5%) to 2015–16 (0.3%) in India. Of the 640 districts, only 21 had a more than 2% prevalence of male sterilization. Scheduled tribe couples were two times more likely to use male sterilization than other (upper/no caste) groups. Couples from the northern region were significantly more likely to use male sterilization (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.43–1.97) compared with those from the south. There was a regional disparity in male condom use, with a very small proportion of couples in the southern (1.1%), north-eastern (2.4%) and eastern (3.3%) regions using the method compared with couples from the northern region (9.7%). Couples from the northern (aOR: 8.89, 95% CI: 8.44–9.38), north-eastern (aOR: 11.37, 95% CI: 10.62–12.18), eastern (aOR: 6.96, 95% CI: 6.60–7.34), western (aOR: 4.65, 95% CI: 4.40–4.92) and central (aOR: 10.89, 95% CI: 10.35–11.46) regions were also significantly more likely to use male spacing methods than those from southern India. Therefore, a greater focus on increasing the use of male sterilization and condoms is required in India to reduce the gender disparity in the use of family planning methods.
In the UK, postnatal depression is more common in British South Asian women than White Caucasion women. Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended as a first-line treatment, but there is little evidence for the adaptation of CBT for postnatal depression to ensure its applicability to different ethnic groups.
To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a CBT-based positive health programme group intervention in British South Asian women with postnatal depression.
We have designed a multicentre, two-arm, partially nested, randomised controlled trial with 4- and 12-month follow-up, comparing a 12-session group CBT-based intervention (positive health programme) plus treatment as usual with treatment as usual alone, for British South Asian women with postnatal depression. Participants will be recruited from primary care and appropriate community venues in areas of high South Asian density across the UK. It has been estimated that randomising 720 participants (360 into each group) will be sufficient to detect a clinically important difference between a 55% recovery rate in the intervention group and a 40% recovery rate in the treatment-as-usual group. An economic analysis will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the positive health programme. A qualitative process evaluation will explore barriers and enablers to study participation and examine the acceptability and impact of the programme from the perspective of British South Asian women and other key stakeholders.
Catatonia, a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome, has few studies of sufficient scale to clarify its epidemiology or pathophysiology. We aimed to characterise demographic associations, peripheral inflammatory markers and outcome of catatonia.
Electronic healthcare records were searched for validated clinical diagnoses of catatonia. In a case–control study, demographics and inflammatory markers were compared in psychiatric inpatients with and without catatonia. In a cohort study, the two groups were compared in terms of their duration of admission and mortality.
We identified 1456 patients with catatonia (of whom 25.1% had two or more episodes) and 24 956 psychiatric inpatients without catatonia. Incidence was 10.6 episodes of catatonia per 100 000 person-years. Patients with and without catatonia were similar in sex, younger and more likely to be of Black ethnicity. Serum iron was reduced in patients with catatonia [11.6 v. 14.2 μmol/L, odds ratio (OR) 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45–0.95), p = 0.03] and creatine kinase was raised [2545 v. 459 IU/L, OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.29–1.81), p < 0.001], but there was no difference in C-reactive protein or white cell count. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were significantly associated with catatonia, but there were small numbers of positive results. Duration of hospitalisation was greater in the catatonia group (median: 43 v. 25 days), but there was no difference in mortality after adjustment.
In the largest clinical study of catatonia, we found catatonia occurred in approximately 1 per 10 000 person-years. Evidence for a proinflammatory state was mixed. Catatonia was associated with prolonged inpatient admission but not with increased mortality.
To assess the frequency of low self-esteem among adolescents of secondary school level in private schools of Karachi
It was a cross-sectional descriptive study done in ten private schools of Karachi for a period of 6 months. The proposal of the study was accepted by ethical committee of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi (called Institutional Review Board or IRB).The subjects fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled after obtaining informed consent by their parents. A semi-structured Performa was used to assess students’ particulars and included Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire as a part of Performa. The data were analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Frequencies & percentages were generated for the level of self-esteem.Stratified analysis was done with a p value <0.05 taken as significant.
Out of the 246 students, 39.8% were of 14yrs of age, 36.2% were 15 years of age, while only 24% of adolescents were 16 years of age. Majority (64.2%) of the students were males while females were 35.8%. 70.3% of the students had normal level of self-esteem, whereas 28.9% of students had low self-esteem and only 0.8% of students had high self-esteem. Relationship of all the variables was found to be non-significant except that of educational level (p-value 0.047).
Self-esteem was found to be normal in most of the adolescents of secondary school level but still more than 1/4th of the study participants had low self-esteem which if assessed and addressed early may save the individuals from mental health issues as well as problems at work and home life.Having a better understanding of self-esteem, can help us to identify the adolescents who have low self-esteem and are predisposed to develop mental health difficulties in future.It can lead to not only early intervention and reducing the burden of disease but also help in developing programs to help improve self-esteem in adolescents,hence increasing their overall motivation and productivity.
Suicide accounts for 2.2% of all years of life lost worldwide. We aimed to establish whether infectious epidemics are associated with any changes in the incidence of suicide or the period prevalence of self-harm, or thoughts of suicide or self-harm, with a secondary objective of establishing the frequency of these outcomes.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and AMED were searched from inception to 9 September 2020. Studies of infectious epidemics reporting outcomes of (a) death by suicide, (b) self-harm or (c) thoughts of suicide or self-harm were identified. A random-effects model meta-analysis for the period prevalence of thoughts of suicide or self-harm was conducted.
In total, 1354 studies were screened with 57 meeting eligibility criteria, of which 7 described death by suicide, 9 by self-harm, and 45 thoughts of suicide or self-harm. The observation period ranged from 1910 to 2020 and included epidemics of Spanish Flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome, human monkeypox, Ebola virus disease and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Regarding death by suicide, data with a clear longitudinal comparison group were available for only two epidemics: SARS in Hong Kong, finding an increase in suicides among the elderly, and COVID-19 in Japan, finding no change in suicides among children and adolescents. In terms of self-harm, five studies examined emergency department attendances in epidemic and non-epidemic periods, of which four found no difference and one showed a reduction during the epidemic. In studies of thoughts of suicide or self-harm, one large survey showed a substantial increase in period prevalence compared to non-epidemic periods, but smaller studies showed no difference. As a secondary objective, a meta-analysis of thoughts of suicide and self-harm found that the pooled prevalence was 8.0% overall (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2–12.0%; 14 820 of 99 238 cases in 24 studies) over a time period of between seven days and six months. The quality assessment found 42 studies were of low quality, nine of moderate quality and six of high quality.
There is little robust evidence on the association of infectious epidemics with suicide, self-harm and thoughts of suicide or self-harm. There was an increase in suicides among the elderly in Hong Kong during SARS and no change in suicides among young people in Japan during COVID-19, but it is unclear how far these findings may be generalised. The development of up-to-date self-harm and suicide statistics to monitor the effect of the current pandemic is an urgent priority.
Identifying developmental endophenotypes on the pathway between genetics and behavior is critical to uncovering the mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental conditions. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored whether early disruptions in visual attention are a unique or shared candidate endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We calculated the duration of the longest look (i.e., peak look) to faces in an array-based eye-tracking task for 335 14-month-old infants with and without first-degree relatives with ASD and/or ADHD. We leveraged parent-report and genotype data available for a proportion of these infants to evaluate the relation of looking behavior to familial (n = 285) and genetic liability (using polygenic scores, n = 185) as well as ASD and ADHD-relevant temperament traits at 2 years of age (shyness and inhibitory control, respectively, n = 272) and ASD and ADHD clinical traits at 6 years of age (n = 94).
Results showed that longer peak looks at the face were associated with elevated polygenic scores for ADHD (β = 0.078, p = .023), but not ASD (β = 0.002, p = .944), and with elevated ADHD traits in mid-childhood (F(1,88) = 6.401, p = .013, $\eta _p^2$=0.068; ASD: F (1,88) = 3.218, p = .076), but not in toddlerhood (ps > 0.2). This pattern of results did not emerge when considering mean peak look duration across face and nonface stimuli. Thus, alterations in attention to faces during spontaneous visual exploration may be more consistent with a developmental endophenotype of ADHD than ASD. Our work shows that dissecting paths to neurodevelopmental conditions requires longitudinal data incorporating polygenic contribution, early neurocognitive function, and clinical phenotypic variation.
Background: The inappropriate and irrational use of antibiotics both in humans and animals causes bacterial resistance. Bacterial resistance is common in low- and middle-income countries, including Bangladesh. Bangladesh has very limited information on antibiotic use and associated resistance. We sought to better understand antibiotic use in low-resource settings for the development of effective strategies to address inappropriate antibiotic use. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among hospitalized children <5 years of age in a tertiary-care hospital in Barishal, Bangladesh, to collect data on antibiotic use. We collected data from 400 children during February–April 2019. Results: Among these 400 children, >50% were aged <1 year, and >60% of these children were boys. The average hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1–14). Most of the children had history of diarrhea and 18% had pneumonia. Most children (82%) were prescribed antibiotics. A combined form of antibiotics was prescribed for 17% of these children. In total, 14 different antibiotics were used. The most commonly used antibiotic was ceftriaxone (57%) followed by azithromycin (14%). The parental route was mostly preferred (75%) for antibiotic administration. Conclusions: Antibiotic prescription was common in children aged <5 years visiting a tertiary-care hospital. Most of the prescribed antibiotics were broad spectrum, which can promote bacterial resistance. Further studies are needed to identify the factors associated with overuse of antibiotics and bacterial resistance in low-resource settings.
This study explored how social exclusion predicted adolescent wellbeing via stress, academic self-efficacy, and school satisfaction. Data were collected from 328 adolescents in Turkey. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative effects of social exclusion on wellbeing were partially mediated by stress, academic self-efficacy, and school satisfaction. Given its important role in students’ social, academic, and psychological development, researchers and practitioners may need to give more attention to social exclusion as a key risk factor for decreased wellbeing.
Compared to the general population, people with schizophrenia have a substantially higher risk of premature mortality which translates into a 10–15 year reduction in life expectancy. The aim of this investigation was to determine if symptoms (including aggression, hallucinations or delusions, and depression) or the environmental and functional status of people with schizophrenia contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group.
We identified cases of schizophrenia, aged ≥15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of specific symptoms, activities of daily living (ADLs), living conditions, occupational and recreational activities (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales) on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10) using Cox regression.
We identified 4270 schizophrenia cases (170 deaths) in the observation period. After controlling for a broad range of covariates, mortality was not significantly associated with hallucinations and delusions or overactive-aggressive behaviour, but was associated with subclinical depression (adjusted HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) and ADL impairment (adjusted HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.9).
Severity of symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, was less important in predicting mortality than subclinical depression and difficulties carrying out activities of daily living. The overall picture appears to be one where the highest all-cause mortality risk is in service users who are least visible to clinical teams.