To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
‘Fiddling while Rome burns’ is arguably the most familiar English saying inspired by classical antiquity. The image of Nero actually playing an instrument during the Great Fire is not, in fact, found in ancient sources: the first English reference belongs to Cooper's 1548 revision of Elyot's Latin–English Dictionary, where Nero is said to play a harp during the conflagration. In 1649 the royalist poet George Daniel applied the term ‘fiddle’, and the familiar modern form of the expression, as a byword for a leader's neglect, was apparently coined in a 1680 English parliamentary speech by Silius Titus.
The Watersports Inclusion Games is an annual event organised by Irish Sailing and partners that provides an opportunity for individuals of all abilities across the physical, sensory, intellectual and learning spectrums and those experiencing barriers accessing mainstream sport to partake in a range of watersports. 79 volunteers from the 2019 cohort responded to a pilot survey to assess the benefits for volunteers at the event.
This project aims to assess this data in the context of current knowledge about the benefits for volunteers in inclusive sport.
Literature review used the PEO keyword framework in medical and psychological databases, as well as grey literature. Data was collected using SurveyMonkey, quantitative data was analysed using Survey Monkey and SPSS, and qualitative themes were analysed using SurveyMonkey and Excel.
Only one article exploring the benefits for volunteers in inclusive watersports was identified during literature review. This pilot survey analysis is the first on this topic in Ireland, and the largest sample of volunteers in inclusive watersport that we are aware of internationally. Thematic analysis finds that volunteers at this event are primarily motivated by altruistic motives, while the benefits they perceive include both personal enjoyment and growth, and seeing the enjoyment of other participants.
This project demonstrates that inclusive watersports can have many benefits for volunteers. The findings of this study can contribute to the evidence base on the benefits of inclusive sport for all those involved, while also identifying an opportunity for further study on volunteerism in inclusive sport, particularly adaptive watersports.
Conflict of interest
Ms O’Flynn reports a scholarship from the Health Research Board for this project, Dr Barrett has nothing to disclose, Ms Murphy reports to be the Inclusion Games Office, and thus responsible for the organisation of the Watersports Inclusion Games.
This article analyses composer Pamela Z's work in light of critiques of posthumanism from Black studies and sound/music studies. Z's large-scale multimedia work Voci (2003), which the artist describes as a ‘polyphonic mono-opera’, consists of a series of eighteen scenes that combine vocal performance with digital video and audio processing. Z manipulates these sources using the BodySynth, an alternate controller interface that converts bodily gestures into expressive control signals. Z's work has been considered through cyborgian, Afrofuturist, and posthumanist discourses. But rather than affirm her practice as fully consonant with technological visions of the posthuman, I argue that she challenges the very liberal humanism upon which the posthuman is built. For a key tenet of liberal humanism, as Alexander G. Weheliye observes, was the racial and gendered apportionment of humanity into full humans, not-quite-humans, and non-humans. We have never been completely human, he suggests, let alone posthuman.
Z uses technologies of the embodied voice to confront both the posthuman imaginary and the continued effects of its ideological preconditions in racio-colonial liberal humanism. In a Voci scene entitled ‘Voice Studies’, for instance, Z engages the problem of ‘linguistic profiling’ as it applies to housing discrimination, citing the work of Stanford linguistics researcher John Baugh. Against a backdrop of percussive vocalizations, Z explains, ‘Studies reveal that people can often infer the race of an individual based on the sound of their voice’, subsequently playing back recordings of housing applicants containing vocal signifiers of racial difference. The article then contrasts this kind of ‘aural dimension of race’ found in Jennifer Lynn Stoever's notion of the ‘sonic color line’ with Pierre Schaeffer's attempt to separate sound from the social – as well as from bodies and identities – in his practice of acousmatic reduction. With this in mind, I show how Z construes the voice as an acous(ma)tic technology of embodiment while reframing opera's humanist legacy through Voci's allegorical narration of the ‘prehuman’, ‘human’, and ‘posthuman’. Moving with and against a posthuman imaginary, Z suggests that although we have never quite been human or posthuman, we may nevertheless narrate new versions of each.
The Belfast Ramped Pyroxidation/Combustion (RPO/RC) facility was established at the 14CHRONO Centre (Queen’s University Belfast). The facility was created to provide targeted analysis of bulk material for refined chronological analysis and carbon source attribution for a range of sample types. Here we report initial RPO results, principally on background material, but also including secondary standards that are routinely analyzed at 14CHRONO. A description of our setup, methodology, and background (blank) correction method for the system are provided. The backgrounds (anthracite, spar calcite, Pargas marble) reported by the system are in excess of 35,000 14C years BP with a mean age of 39,345 14C years BP (1σ = 36,497–43,800 years BP, N=44) with F14C = 0.0075 ± 0.0032. Initial results for standards are also in good agreement with consensus values: TIRI-B pine radiocarbon age = 4482 ± 47 years BP (N=13, consensus = 4508 years BP); IAEA-C6 ANU Sucrose F14C= 1.5036 ± 0.0034 (N=10, consensus F14C = 1.503). These initial tests have allowed problematic issues to be identified and improvements made for future analyses.
To determine whether modified reporting of positive urine cultures collected from indwelling catheters improved treatment decisions without causing harm.
Prospective, unblinded, randomized control trial.
Two tertiary-care hospitals.
Overall, 100 consecutive positive urine cultures collected from catheterized inpatients were randomized between standard and modified laboratory reporting between November 2018 and June 2019. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, current antibiotic treatment, ICU or urology admission, or neutropenia.
The modified report included significant growth without providing identification, quantification, or susceptibility. The standard report included identification, quantitation and susceptibility. Diagnosis of catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (CA-ASB) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) followed published criteria, using prospective chart review. The appropriate antibiotic treatment was defined as treatment of CA-UTI, and no treatment of CA-ASB. Patients were followed for 7 days.
Of 543 urine cultures, 443 (82%) were excluded. Of 100 patients, 75 (75%) had CA-ASB and 25 (25%) had CA-UTI. Treatment was given to 45 of 75 CA-ASB patients (60%) and all 25 CA-UTI patients (100%). Appropriate treatment rate was higher in the modified reporting arm than in the standard reporting arm: 57% vs 50% (+7.4%; relative risk [RR], 1.15; P = .45). Untreated CA-ASB was higher in the modified reporting arm: 45% vs 33% (+12%; RR, 1.36; P = .30). The standard report was requested for 33% of modified reports. Furthermore, 4 deaths and 26.9% adverse events occurred in the modified reporting arm, and 3 deaths and 41.3% adverse events occurred in the standard reporting arm.
Modified reporting increased the appropriateness of treatment, and may be safe.
We evaluated adverse drug events (ADEs) by chart review in a random national sample of 428 veterans with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who received tocilizumab (n = 173 of 428). ADEs (median time, 5 days) occurred in 51 of 173 (29%) and included hepatoxicity (n = 29) and infection (n = 13). Concomitant medication discontinuation occurred in 22% of ADE patients; mortality was 39%.
In this chapter on the poetry of George Moses Horton, the local expands to encompass not only the city of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, but also the states of North Carolina and Virginia. This chapter shows how the 1831 Nat Turner insurrection and its aftermath profoundly shaped the enslaved Horton’s later poetry.
An emerging picture has seen increasing numbers of young people with mental health crisis attend paediatric emergency departments in Ireland. Following paediatric review, many are referred to in-house paediatric liaison psychiatry (PLP) services. This pilot study describes referral patterns and practice over a 1-month period across three Dublin centres.
Case notes of all referrals to PLP were reviewed to extract relevant clinical and administrative data. For those admitted, costs associated with length of stay were estimated. Clinical profile, management and intra-hospital pathway differences were explored.
Fifty-nine young people under 16 years presented to one of the three EDs with an acute MH presentation. The sample consisted of 39 females (66%) with a mean age of 13.7 years. The majority (n = 34, 58%) presented out of hours. A substantial portion of youths presenting (n = 37, 63%) were admitted, and had a mean duration of stay of 4.51 days. There were differences between hospitals in terms of frequency of presentation with self-harm, admission rates and length of stay.
Different PLP service configuration, staffing and funding streams may explain some of the differences observed across centres, although the findings should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Standardisation of service provision and management is needed for PLP services. Additional community CAMHS resourcing is needed to support the development of alternative pathways for youth in need of urgent MH review.
Influential theories predict that antidepressant medication and psychological therapies evoke distinct neural changes.
To test the convergence and divergence of antidepressant- and psychotherapy-evoked neural changes, and their overlap with the brain's affect network.
We employed a quantitative synthesis of three meta-analyses (n = 4206). First, we assessed the common and distinct neural changes evoked by antidepressant medication and psychotherapy, by contrasting two comparable meta-analyses reporting the neural effects of these treatments. Both meta-analyses included patients with affective disorders, including major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. The majority were assessed using negative-valence tasks during neuroimaging. Next, we assessed whether the neural changes evoked by antidepressants and psychotherapy overlapped with the brain's affect network, using data from a third meta-analysis of affect-based neural activation.
Neural changes from psychotherapy and antidepressant medication did not significantly converge on any region. Antidepressants evoked neural changes in the amygdala, whereas psychotherapy evoked anatomically distinct changes in the medial prefrontal cortex. Both psychotherapy- and antidepressant-related changes separately converged on regions of the affect network.
This supports the notion of treatment-specific brain effects of antidepressants and psychotherapy. Both treatments induce changes in the affect network, but our results suggest that their effects on affect processing occur via distinct proximal neurocognitive mechanisms of action.
This article elaborates the art-theoretical concept of ‘the contemporary’ along with formal differences between contemporary music and contemporary art. Contemporary art emerges from the radical transformations of the historical avant-garde and neo-avant-garde that have led to post-conceptual art – a generic art beyond specific mediums that prioritizes discursive meaning and social process – while contemporary music struggles with its status as a non-conceptual art form that inherits its concept from aesthetic modernism and absolute music. The article also considers the category of sound art and discusses some of the ways it, too, is at odds with contemporary art's generic and post-conceptual condition. I argue that, despite their respective claims to contemporaneity, neither sound art nor contemporary music is contemporary in the historical sense of the term articulated in art theory. As an alternative to these categories, I propose ‘musical contemporary art’ to describe practices that depart in consequential ways from new/contemporary music and sound art.
Prenatal hormones have been proposed as key factors impacting child development as well as long-term health and disease. Digit ratio (the ratio of the lengths of the second to fourth digits; 2D:4D) has been proposed as a sexually dimorphic, noninvasive marker of prenatal androgen exposure that can be reliably measured in children and adults. To date, few longitudinal pregnancy cohort studies have examined childhood digit ratio in relation to other relevant measures including prenatal hormones and androgen-sensitive outcomes. To augment the current literature on this topic, we measured right-hand digit ratio in 4-year-old children participating in The Infant Development and the Environment Study, a multicenter longitudinal cohort study that has been following mother–child dyads since the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 321). We assessed sex differences in digit ratio and fit multivariable linear regression models to examine digit ratio in relation to: (1) child sex; (2) maternal sex steroid hormone concentrations in early pregnancy; (3) newborn anogenital distance, another proposed measure of sensitivity to prenatal androgens; and (4) gender-typical play behavior as measured by the Preschool Activities Inventory (PSAI) at age 4. We observed no sex difference in digit ratio; the mean 2D:4D was 0.97 ± 0.05 mm in both sexes. Furthermore, digit ratio was not associated with maternal sex steroid concentrations in early pregnancy, anogenital distance in either sex, or PSAI scores in either sex in covariate-adjusted models. In conclusion, we observed no evidence that early childhood digit ratio was associated with child sex or hormone-sensitive measures in this cohort.
The Chinese culture of filial piety has historically emphasised children's responsibility for their ageing parents. Little is understood regarding the inverse: parents’ responsibility and care for their adult children. This paper uses interviews with 50 families living in rural China's Anhui Province to understand intergenerational support in rural China. Findings indicate that parents in rural China take on large financial burdens in order to sustain patrilineal traditions by providing housing and child care for their adult sons. These expectations lead some rural elders to become migrant workers in order to support their adult sons while others provide live-in grandchild-care, moving into their children's urban homes or bringing grandchildren into their own homes. As the oldest rural generations begin to require ageing care of their own, migrant children are unable to provide the sustained care and support expected within the cultural tradition of xiao. This paper adds to the small body of literature that examines the downward transfer of support from parents to their adult children in rural China. The authors argue that there is an emerging cultural rupture in the practice of filial piety – while the older generation is fulfilling their obligations of upbringing and paying for adult children's housing and child care; these adult children are not necessarily available or committed to the return of care for their ageing parents. The authors reveal cultural and structural lags that leave millions of rural ageing adults vulnerable in the process of urbanisation in rural China.
Methiozolin is a new herbicide with an unknown mechanism of action (MOA) for control of annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) in several warm- and cool-season turfgrasses. In the literature, methiozolin was proposed to be a pigment inhibitor via inhibition of tyrosine aminotransferases (TATs) or a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI). Here, exploratory research was conducted to characterize the herbicide symptomology and MOA of methiozolin. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) and P. annua exhibited a similar level of susceptibility to methiozolin, and arrest of meristematic growth was the most characteristic symptomology. For example, methiozolin inhibited A. thaliana root growth (GR50 8 nM) and shoot emergence (GR80 ˜50 nM), and apical meristem growth was completely arrested at rates greater than 500 nM. We concluded that methiozolin was neither a TAT nor a CBI inhibitor. Methiozolin had a minor effect on chlorophyll and alpha-tocopherol content in treated seedlings (<500 nM), and supplements in the proposed TAT pathway could not lessen phytotoxicity. Examination of microscopic images of roots revealed that methiozolin-treated (100 nM) and untreated seedlings had similar root cell lengths. Thus, methiozolin inhibits cell proliferation and not elongation from meristematic tissue. Subsequently, we suspected methiozolin was an inhibitor of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway, because its herbicidal symptomologies were nearly indistinguishable from those caused by lovastatin. However, methiozolin did not inhibit phytosterol production, and MVA pathway metabolites did not rescue treated seedlings. Further experiments showed that methiozolin produced a physiological profile very similar to cinmethylin across a number of assays, a known inhibitor of fatty-acid synthesis through inhibition of thioesterases (FATs). Experiments with lesser duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis Welw.; syn. Lemna paucicostata Hegelm.) showed that methiozolin also reduced fatty-acid content in Lemna with a profile similar, but not identical, to cinmethylin. However, there was no difference in fatty-acid content between treated (1 µM) and untreated A. thaliana seedlings. Methiozolin also bound to both A, thaliana and L. aequinoctialis FATs in vitro. Modeling suggested that methiozolin and cinmethylin have comparable and overlapping FAT binding sites. While there was a discrepancy in the effect of methiozolin on fatty-acid content between L. aequinoctialis and A. thaliana, the overall evidence indicates that methiozolin is a FAT inhibitor and acts in a similar manner as cinmethylin.
In this study, we investigate if children born following assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) are at an increased risk for long-term ophthalmic complications. For this purpose, a population-based cohort analysis was conducted which included all deliveries between 1991 and 2014 at a single tertiary medical center. Offspring were classified relative to conception method as ART or spontaneous pregnancies. Offspring hospitalizations up to the age of 18 years involving ophthalmic morbidities were evaluated according to a predefined set of ICD-9 codes. A Kaplan–Meier survival curve was used to compare cumulative hospitalization rates in exposed (ART) and unexposed offspring (spontaneous), and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to control for potential confounders. A total of 243,682 deliveries were included in the study. In that, 1.8% of the deliveries (4364) were of mothers who underwent fertility treatments and 98.2% (239,318) were conceived spontaneously. Offspring born to mothers who underwent fertility treatments had a significantly higher hospitalization rate involving ophthalmic morbidity, as compared to spontaneously conceived offspring (1.2% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.04). The Kaplan–Meier survival curve pointed to a significantly higher cumulative incidence of ophthalmic morbidity following ART (log rank p = 0.02). Cox proportional hazards model was adjusted for maternal age, preterm delivery, maternal hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and mode of delivery which demonstrated ART as an independent risk factor for long-term pediatric ophthalmic morbidity (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.37, CI 1.04–1.80, p-value = 0.02). We concluded that ART is an independent risk factor for long-term ophthalmic morbidity of the offspring.
The Late Triassic fauna of the Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation (LSF) from the Elgin area, Scotland, has been pivotal in expanding our understanding of Triassic terrestrial tetrapods. Frustratingly, due to their odd preservation, interpretations of the Elgin Triassic specimens have relied on destructive moulding techniques, which only provide incomplete, and potentially distorted, information. Here, we show that micro-computed tomography (μCT) could revitalise the study of this important assemblage. We describe a long-neglected specimen that was originally identified as a pseudosuchian archosaur, Ornithosuchus woodwardi. μCT scans revealed dozens of bones belonging to at least two taxa: a small-bodied pseudosuchian and a specimen of the procolophonid Leptopleuron lacertinum. The pseudosuchian skeleton possesses a combination of characters that are unique to the clade Erpetosuchidae. As a basis for investigating the phylogenetic relationships of this new specimen, we reviewed the anatomy, taxonomy and systematics of other erpetosuchid specimens from the LSF (all previously referred to Erpetosuchus). Unfortunately, due to the differing representation of the skeleton in the available Erpetosuchus specimens, we cannot determine whether the erpetosuchid specimen we describe here belongs to Erpetosuchus granti (to which we show it is closely related) or if it represents a distinct new taxon. Nevertheless, our results shed light on rarely preserved details of erpetosuchid anatomy. Finally, the unanticipated new information extracted from both previously studied and neglected specimens suggests that fossil remains may be much more widely distributed in the Elgin quarries than previously recognised, and that the richness of the LSF might have been underestimated.
North Carolina Central University (NCCU) and Duke Cancer Institute implemented an NCI-funded Translational Cancer Disparities Research Partnership to enhance translational cancer research, increase the pool of underrepresented racial and ethnic group (UREG) researchers in the translational and clinical research workforce, and equip UREG trainees with skills to increase diversity in clinical trials. The Cancer Research Education Program (C-REP) provided training for UREG graduate students and postdoctoral fellows at Duke and NCCU. An innovative component of C-REP is the Translational Immersion Experience (TIE), which enabled Scholars to gain knowledge across eight domains of clinical and translational research (clinical trials operations, data monitoring, regulatory affairs, UREG accrual, biobanking, community engagement, community outreach, and high-throughput drug screening). Program-specific evaluative metrics were created for three broad domains (clinical operations, basic science/lab research, and population-based science) and eight TIE domains. Two cohorts (n = 13) completed pre- and post-surveys to determine program impact and identify recommendations for program improvement. Scholars reported statistically significant gains in knowledge across three broad domains of biomedical research and seven distinct areas within TIE. Training in translational research incorporating immersions in clinical trials operation, biobanking, drug development, and community engagement adds value to career development of UREG researchers.