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This chapter offers an account of the state of Roman law and Hellenistic philosophy at the beginning of the period of interaction, for which the Roman embassy of the Athenian philosophers in 155 BCE offers a convenient starting point. In the 2nd century BCE the inegalitarian and expert-guided manner of dispute resolution in Rome is secularised, with case law becoming its main product. In philosophy the most important schools that attract the attention of the Romans are the dogmatic Stoics and their sceptical adversaries, the Academics.
This chapter deals again with the influence of law on philosophy, now with regard to a substantive issue. Under the influence of the Roman jurists, for whom private property was an important topic, the ‘Roman’ Stoics followed suit, and awarded private property a novel, central place in thinking about justice, a place which would have a decisive influence on modern, Western political thought.
This chapter rounds off the volume in two ways. It deals with, first, the more sporadic interaction between jurists and philosophers in the early imperial period, and second, with the influence of the late Republican interaction on law and philosophy as they are both practised today.
In this chapter, the influence of Hellenistic philosophy on Roman law is discussed in terms of method: with the help of the Stoic dialectical methods of classifying and defining the Roman jurists could start to systematise the organically grown output of their civil law and turn the resolution of disputes into a scientific enterprise, producing systematic overviews along the way. In the 6th century CE, the Roman Emperor Justinian took the influential decision that an updated version of one of these accounts itself be given the status of law.
Whereas the previous chapters dealt with the influence of Hellenistic philosophy on Roman law in terms of method, this chapter deals with the influence with regard to a substantive issue, the notion of person. The Roman jurists became interested in the abstract use of the notion of person in the slipstream of the philosophers, who combined the Greek understanding of person with a more indigenous, that is Etruscan, understanding thereof. ‘Person’ thus understood would become one of the central notions in Roman law and beyond.
In this chapter the topic of the interaction between Roman law and Hellenistic philosophy in the late Republican era is introduced, with reference to earlier treatments in modern scholarship. Furthermore, preliminary issues are brought up, such as the problem of the sources, the characterisations of law and philosophy as practices – law as a practice of dispute resolution and philosophy as practiced within schools or haereseis with different outlooks -, and the role of rhetoric in the interaction.
In this chapter the influence of Hellenistic philosophy on Roman law is continued in terms of method: from Hellenistic epistemology the Roman jurists, like the grammarians, took over the notion of rule: they started to use it initially as a mnemotechnical device in order to get to grips with their growing legal output.
Whereas in the previous chapters the influence of law on philosophy is brought up, this chapter deals the influence of law on philosophy, with regard to method. Already within early Hellenistic philosophy a shift of focus can be discerned from a virtue-centered to an action-orientated approach: in the 3rd century BCE the early Stoics had become interested in questions about the ‘appropriate actions’ that can be derived from these virtues. In the 2nd century BCE, inspired by the Roman jurists, the Roman Stoics became interested in the concrete applications of such actions or – put differently – introduced casuistry into philosophy.
The middle of the second until the middle of the first century BCE is one of the most creative periods in the history of human thought, and an important part of this was the interaction between Roman jurists and Hellenistic philosophers. In this highly original book, René Brouwer shows how jurists transformed the study of law into a science with the help of philosophical methods and concepts, such as division, rules and persons, and also how philosophers came to share the jurists' preoccupations with cases and private property. The relevance of this cross-fertilization for present-day law and philosophy cannot be overestimated: in law, its legacy includes the academic study of law and the Western models of dispute resolution, while in philosophy, the method of casuistry and the concept of just property.
Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of cognitive remediation in depression. An update of the current evidence is needed. The aim was to systematically assess the effectiveness of cognitive remediation in depression on three outcomes.
The meta-analysis was pre-registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019124316). PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched on 2 February 2019 and 8 November 2020 for peer-reviewed published articles. We included randomized and non-randomized clinical trials comparing cognitive remediation to control conditions in adults with primary depression. Random-effects models were used to calculate Hedges' g, and moderators were assessed using mixed-effects subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Main outcome categories were post-treatment depressive symptomatology (DS), cognitive functioning (CF) and daily functioning (DF).
We identified 5221 records and included 21 studies reporting on 24 comparisons, with 438 depressed patients receiving cognitive remediation and 540 patients in a control condition. We found a small effect on DS (g = 0.28, 95% CI 0.09–0.46, I2 40%), a medium effect on CF (g = 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.83, I2 44%) and a small effect on DF (g = 0.22, 95% CI 0.06–0.39, I2 3%). There were no significant effects at follow-up. Confounding bias analyses indicated possible overestimation of the DS and DF effects in the original studies.
Cognitive remediation in depression improves CF in the short term. The effects on DS and DF may have been overestimated. Baseline depressive symptom severity should be considered when administering cognitive remediation.
Dietary interventions did not prevent depression onset nor reduced depressive symptoms in a large multi-center randomized controlled depression prevention study (MooDFOOD) involving overweight adults with subsyndromal depressive symptoms. We conducted follow-up analyses to investigate whether dietary interventions differ in their effects on depressive symptom profiles (mood/cognition; somatic; atypical, energy-related).
Baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data from MooDFOOD were used (n = 933). Participants received (1) placebo supplements, (2) food-related behavioral activation (F-BA) therapy with placebo supplements, (3) multi-nutrient supplements (omega-3 fatty acids and a multi-vitamin), or (4) F-BA therapy with multi-nutrient supplements. Depressive symptom profiles were based on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology.
F-BA therapy was significantly associated with decreased severity of the somatic (B = −0.03, p = 0.014, d = −0.10) and energy-related (B = −0.08, p = 0.001, d = −0.13), but not with the mood/cognition symptom profile, whereas multi-nutrient supplementation was significantly associated with increased severity of the mood/cognition (B = 0.05, p = 0.022, d = 0.09) and the energy-related (B = 0.07, p = 0.002, d = 0.12) but not with the somatic symptom profile.
Differentiating depressive symptom profiles indicated that food-related behavioral interventions are most beneficial to alleviate somatic symptoms and symptoms of the atypical, energy-related profile linked to an immuno-metabolic form of depression, although effect sizes were small. Multi-nutrient supplements are not indicated to reduce depressive symptom profiles. These findings show that attention to clinical heterogeneity in depression is of importance when studying dietary interventions.
We hypothesize that exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins, measured in serum, alters protein synthesis, reducing serum protein and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), increasing inflammation and infection, leading to child linear growth failure.
Children 6-35 months, stratified by baseline stunting, were subsampled from an intervention trial on quality protein maize consumption and evaluated at two time points.
Blood samples and anthropometric data were collected in the pre-harvest (August-September 2015) and post-harvest (February 2016) seasons in rural Ethiopia.
102 children (50 stunted and 52 non-stunted).
Proportions of children exposed to aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, and aflatoxin M1 were higher in the pre-harvest (8%, 33%, and 7%, respectively) compared to post-harvest season (4%, 28%, and 4%, respectively). The proportion of children exposed to any aflatoxin was higher in the pre-harvest than post-harvest season (51% vs. 41%). Fumonisin exposure ranged from 0-11%. In joint statistical tests, aflatoxin exposure was associated with serum biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, α-1-glycoprotein) and protein status (transthyretin, lysine, tryptophan), IGF-1, and linear growth (all p<0.01). However, exposure to specific aflatoxins was not significantly associated with any biomarkers or outcomes (all p>0.05).
Aflatoxin exposure among rural Ethiopian children was high, with large variation between seasons and individual aflatoxins. Fumonisin exposure was low. There was no clear association between aflatoxin exposure and protein status, inflammation, or linear growth. A larger study may be needed to examine potential biological interactions, and assessment of aflatoxins in food is needed to determine sources of high exposure.
Biofortified yellow cassava has been developed to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. We examined the potential contribution of yellow cassava to total retinol activity equivalent (RAE) intake if replacing white by yellow cassava among pre-school Nigerian children. Dietary intake was assessed as part of a randomised controlled trial. Pre-schoolchildren (n 176) were randomly assigned to receive either white cassava (WC) or yellow cassava (YC) for 17 weeks. Dietary intake assessments were conducted during the intervention and 1 month after, when children had resumed their habitual diet. Differences in RAE intake between groups and time points were compared using a linear mixed model regression analysis. During intervention, median RAE intake was 536 µg/d in the YC group and 301 µg/d in the WC group (P < 0·0001). YC contributed approximately 40 % to total RAE intake. Of the children, 9 % in the YC group and 29 % in the WC group had RAE intake below the Estimated Average Requirement. After intervention, median RAE intake was 300 µg/d and did not differ between intervention groups (P = 0·5). The interaction effect of group and time showed a 37 % decrease in RAE intake in the YC group after the intervention (Exp(β) = 0·63; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·72). If WC was replaced by YC after intervention, the potential contribution of YC to total RAE intake was estimated to be approximately 32 %. YC increased total RAE intake and showed a substantially lower inadequacy of intake. It is therefore recommended as a good source of provitamin A in cassava-consuming regions.