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We performed viral culture of respiratory specimens in 118 severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–infected healthcare workers (HCWs), ∼2 weeks after symptom onset. Only 1 HCW (0.8%) had a positive culture. No factors for prolonged viral shedding were identified. Infectivity is resolved in nearly all HCWs ∼2 weeks after symptom onset.
Cloud storage faces many problems in the storage process which badly affect the system's efficiency. One of the most problems is insufficient buffer space in cloud storage. This means that the packets of data wait to have storage service which may lead to weakness in performance evaluation of the system. The storage process is considered a stochastic process in which we can determine the probability distribution of the buffer occupancy and the buffer content and predict the performance behavior of the system at any time. This paper modulates a cloud storage facility as a fluid queue controlled by Markovian queue. This queue has infinite buffer capacity which determined by the M/M/1/N queue with constant arrival and service rates. We obtain the analytical solution of the distribution of the buffer occupancy. Moreover, several performance measures and numerical results are given which illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
The perception of what he calls 'aspects' preoccupied Wittgenstein and gave him considerable trouble in his final years. The Wittgensteinian aspect defies any number of traditional philosophical dichotomies: the aspect is neither subjective (inner, metaphysically private) nor objective; it presents perceivable unity and sense that are (arguably) not (yet) conceptual; it is 'subject to the will', but at the same time is normally taken to be genuinely revelatory of the object perceived under it. This Element begins with a grammatical and phenomenological characterization of Wittgensteinian 'aspects'. It then challenges two widespread ideas: that aspects are to be identified with concepts; and that aspect perception has a continuous version that is characteristic of (normal) human perception. It concludes by proposing that aspect perception brings to light the distinction between the world as perceived and the world as objectively construed, and the role we play in the constitution of the former.
The Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea is a ‘Critically Endangered’ migratory shorebird. The species faces an array of threats in its non-breeding range, making conservation intervention essential. However, conservation efforts are reliant on identifying the species’ key stopover and wintering sites. Using Maximum Entropy models, we predicted Spoon-billed Sandpiper distribution across the non-breeding range, using data from recent field surveys and satellite tracking. Model outputs suggest only a limited number of stopover sites are suitable for migrating birds, with sites in the Yellow Sea and on the Jiangsu coast in China highlighted as particularly important. All the previously known core wintering sites were identified by the model including the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Nan Thar Island and the Gulf of Mottama. In addition, the model highlighted sites subsequently found to be occupied, and pinpointed potential new sites meriting investigation, notably on Borneo and Sulawesi, and in parts of India and the Philippines. A comparison between the areas identified as most likely to be occupied and protected areas showed that very few locations are covered by conservation designations. Known sites must be managed for conservation as a priority, and potential new sites should be surveyed as soon as is feasible to assess occupancy status. Site protection should take place in concert with conservation interventions including habitat management, discouraging hunting, and fostering alternative livelihoods.
ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders among children and adolescents. In this prospective study, we aimed to measure circulating zinc and ferritin levels in children with ADHD, pick up the deficient ones to give zinc and iron supplements then compare before and after treatment according to their Conner’s scores and Wecsler IQ test. Current study included fifty children diagnosed as having ADHD by DSMV criteria, their zinc and ferritin levels were measured by Colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. They were divided into: group I (zinc only deficient),group II (zinc and ferritin deficient),group III (non-deficient), cases with mineral deficiency received zinc (55 mg/day) and/or iron (6 mg/kg/day) for 6 months then reassessed by parent Conner’s rating scale. In group 1, there was no significant difference between the Wecsler verbal and non-verbal IQ scores and oppositional and cognitive problems in Conner’s scores before and after zinc supplements, although there was significant improvement in attention, hyperactivity, emotional liability and impulsivity. In group II, there was significant improvement in verbal and total IQ but not in performance IQ, also there was significant improvement in hyperactivity, emotional liability and impulsivity with no significant difference in oppositional, cognitive problems and inattention before and after zinc/ iron supplements. In Conclusion, Zinc supplements in adjuvant to the main treatment significantly improved symptoms of ADHD children. However, a combined zinc and iron supplements was superior to zinc alone in alleviating ADHD symptoms as well as IQ improvement.
The argument of this chapter proceeds in the form of constructive criticism of Charles Travis’s recent work on perception. Travis has presented a powerful argument against the idea that perception, as such, provides us with true-or-false representations of the world. The representationalist view, Travis argues, fails to respect the fundamental Fregean distinction between "the conceptual" and "the nonconceptual." According to Travis, what perception presents us with is nonconceptual; hence, perception is indeterminate as far as representational content goes. Travis argues that determinate representational content, on the other hand, is only created when things are judged to be some particular way or another. In this chapter, Avner Baz finds himself in substantial agreement with Travis, but argues that something important also goes missing in the latter’s account, namely what Baz calls "the phenomenal world"; that is, the world as perceived and responded toprior to becoming the object of true or false judgments. In particular, Baz shows how Travis consistently represses the phenomenal world in his account of perception whenever he attempts to explain the perception of what Wittgenstein calls "aspects"; for any respectable account of the perception of such aspects, Baz argues, ought to bring the phenomenal world into view.
Objectives: This study provides a standardized Arabic language neuropsychological test battery and tests its ability to distinguish patients with left and right hemisphere epileptic foci who are candidates for surgical resection. Methods: An Arabic language battery of 15 tests was developed based on the neuropsychological test battery used at the Johns Hopkins Hospital for surgical evaluation of patients undergoing temporal lobe resection. With modifications where culturally required, 11 tests were translated to Arabic by the principal investigator and back-translated by two bilingual health professionals; four tests were available in Arabic and added to the battery. The battery was administered to 21 Arabic-speaking patients with left temporal epileptic foci, 21 with right temporal epileptic foci, and 46 neurologically and psychiatrically healthy adults. Results: Nearly all the Arabic test versions were capable of differentiating healthy controls and the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) groups. Tests known to distinguish left and right temporal lobectomy candidates, such as wordlist memory and prose recall, were able to do so as accurately as the English versions. Also, a roughly “culturally free” task (the Baltimore Board) and a newly developed version of the Boston Naming Test demonstrated some sensitivity to left temporal lobe involvement. Conclusions: Arabic-language neuropsychological tests for epilepsy surgical evaluations are made available, demonstrate cultural sensitivity and clinical validity, and require further psychometric property and normative research. (JINS, 2019, 25, 761–771)
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.
For performing theatre practice everywhere ‘history’ has become an especially tricky realm since the Earth became threatened by a likely increase of humankind reaching over ten billion individuals in the first half of the twenty-first century (Emmott 2012). In such an environment, how might any human art be ‘applied’ to the past so as to produce more hopeful futures, let alone performances conventionally conceived as always already disappearing into ephemerality? Thus in 2000, as a long-term performance practitioner, I found myself searching for multi-perspective angles on time passing under the rotting iron hull of a dry-docked nineteenth century ocean liner that, arguably, had changed the world (Kershaw 2011). I was testing how an imagined Last Mermaid Alive – encountered immediately as from the past alive in the present – might automatically instill in the bodies of spectators a resistance to what philosopher Paul Ricoeur identifies as a widely assumed ‘pathological deficiency’ of memory (2004: 21). Five years later I was in a small nineteen century urban zoo observing a pair of environmental movement artists who were dancing an improvised trio with a Latin American spider monkey (Kershaw 2012a). My research focus there was on how the attention of visitors might be stretched via such rare anthropocentric exceptions so that they might encounter a state which Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben calls ‘bare life’ (1995: 8). Perhaps, I figured, that could be one historically temporal vector where an unendurable future might be directly engaged the better to forestall it. Might dreams be made of such stuff that makes re-visioning ‘histories’ possible through ‘applying’ performance to the pasts of the present – a rotting iron ship, ancestral cousins of Homo sapiens, and so on – so as to make some not-too-distant futures into durably hopeful times?
Those attempts to take the past off guard, so to speak, were responding to a putative period in which postmodernism had rendered ‘history without a subject’ and ‘erased the distinction between aesthetic and political modes of expression’ (Ashley 1997: 7). Western cultures were experiencing ‘the disappearance of a sense of history … in which our entire social system has little by little begun to loose a capacity to retain its own past’ (Jameson 1985: 125).
Submicron-sized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) stabilised with bovine serum albumin (BSA) are dual radiolabelled using gamma emitters with different energy spectra incorporated into the core and coating. PLGA core is labelled by encapsulation of 111In-doped iron oxide NPs inside PLGA-NPs during NP preparation, while the BSA coating is labelled by electrophilic substitution using 125I. After intravenous administration into rats, energy-discriminant single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) resolved each radioisotope independently. Imaging revealed different fates for the core and coating, with a fraction of the two radionuclides co-localising in the liver and lungs for long periods of time after administration, suggesting that NPs are stable in these organs. The general methodology reported here represents an excellent alternative for visualising the degradation process of multi-labelled NPs in vivo and can be extended to a wide range of engineered NPs.
This article addresses how scholarship has formulated human connections and ruptures over the Sahara. However, these formulations were, and still are, based in both physical and discursive realities that have been developed in Africa itself. The idea of a dividing Sahara is based on historical political divisions – despite a homogenous political culture in the region – and by locally developed notions of race and religion, brought about by trade and justified in Islamic religious discourse. The Saharan divide acquired a new reading in colonial historiography, which, in turn, informed scholarly work until well into the 1960s. I will suggest that both colonial and postcolonial research on the differences and connections between the Saharan shores are suffering from a civilisational bias towards North Africa.
Although dating violence takes place within the context of a couple, there are few studies exploring how the prevalence data change when violence is reported by one partner or both, and to what extent partners agree about the existence of violence. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze and compare the reports about the prevalence of violence obtained from participants and their partners, together with interpartner agreement concerning victimization and perpetration of threats, physical, verbal-emotional and sexual violence. A total of 105 young heterosexual couples answered a questionnaire about victimization and the perpetration of violence in their relationship during the previous year. The results indicated that prevalence rates varied, depending on who reported the violence -the man, the woman or the couple- perhaps because interpartner agreement was low, except for the occurrence of verbal-emotional violence and the absence of physical violence. These findings suggest the need to develop more systematic research, especially through the use of reports from both members of the couple.
Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported.
This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a beforeand- after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors. This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.
The seeing of what he calls “aspects”, or the “seeing of something as something”, preoccupied Wittgenstein during the last two decades of his life, and arguably earlier than that. His later manuscripts and typescripts are filled with hundreds of remarks on this subject.
With a few exceptions (cf. PI §§534–9), Wittgenstein never came to incorporate his remarks on aspects, or some selection of them, into what we now have as the first part of the Philosophical Investigations. Nor did he ever come to organize these remarks, or some selection of them, in some other way into a philosophical whole. This is important to keep in mind. While the remarks that make up what we now know as the first part of the Investigations were carefully and deliberately designed, over many years, to make their reader work, the numerous remarks on aspect perception show us Wittgenstein himself at work – making his way in a conceptual landscape that he himself found hard to find his way in. Witness here his saying to Maurice Drury, not long before his death, and after many years of thinking about aspect perception: “Now try and say what is involved in seeing something as something; it is not easy. These thoughts I am now having are as hard as granite” (quoted in Monk 1990: 537). Part of what concerns me in this chapter is the nature of the difficulty Wittgenstein found himself facing in thinking about aspects.