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We present the initial results from a class I 44-GHz methanol maser follow-up survey, observed with the MOPRA telescope, towards 272 sources from the Methanol Multi-beam survey (MMB). Over half (∼60%) of the 6.7 GHz class II MMB maser sources are associated with a class I 44-GHz methanol maser at a greater than 5σ detection level. We find that class II MMB masers sources with an associated class I methanol maser have stronger peak fluxes compared to regions without an associated class I maser. Furthermore, as part of the MOPRA follow-up observations we simultaneously observed SiO emission which is a known tracer of shocks and outflows in massive star forming regions. The presence of SiO emission, and potentially outflows, is found to be strongly associated with the detection of class I maser emission in these regions.
The various chapters in this edition of the Handbook make it very clear that the sociology of mental health is a vibrant field of research that encompasses a wide range of sociological issues and employs a range of different methodologies and analytic strategies. As the corpus of research in the sociology of mental health grows, it appears that certain broad themes or content areas have become prominent. What is somewhat surprising to me is the relative separation of these thematic areas from one another.
This brings to mind a novel that is well known in my country, Canada. In 1945, the Canadian novelist Hugh MacLennan wrote The Two Solitudes, a story about a young man struggling to reconcile his English and French Canadian identities. The term, “two solitudes” or “les deux solitudes,” became a well-known phrase throughout the 1960s and through the 1980s in Canada to describe the cultural and political separation between Anglo Canada and Quebec. There is a constant ebb and flow to the gulf between Anglophone and Francophone Canada, not just in terms of language and modern culture, but also in terms of ideas, norms, and values.
In the sociology of mental health, I think we have solitudes, at least three of them, in need of reconciliation. These are represented by areas of research in our field that have grown dramatically since the 1970s and that have generated a wealth of sociological knowledge about mental health and illness:
(1) the stress process in life course perspective
(3) the social organization of mental health services
The stress process model (Pearlin, Lieberman, Menaghan, & Mullan, 1981) is arguably the most dominant research paradigm in the sociology of mental health for understanding how individuals' locations in the social structure of society have consequences for their mental health. Over the past thirty-five years, this paradigm has been modified and extended (Pearlin, 1989, 1998; Pearlin & Bierman, 2013). It has also been revised to incorporate life course dimensions (Pearlin & Skaff, 1996; Pearlin, Schieman, Fazio, & Meersman, 2005).
The central focus of the stress process model is to understand how the structure of social life exposes us to more or less stress which translates into symptoms of mental health problems. It also reveals how social support and various psychosocial resources mediate and/or moderate this process.
V4334 Sgr (a.k.a. Sakurai's object) is the central star of an old planetary nebula that underwent a very late thermal pulse a few years before its discovery in 1996. We have been monitoring the evolution of the optical emission line spectrum since 2001. The goal is to improve the evolutionary models by constraining them with the temporal evolution of the central star temperature. In addition the high resolution spectral observations obtained by X-shooter and ALMA show the temporal evolution of the different morphological components.
The methanol multi-beam (MMB) survey has produced the largest and most complete catalogue of Galactic 6.7-GHz methanol masers to date. 6.7-GHz methanol masers are exclusively associated with high-mass star formation, and as such provide invaluable insight into the Galactic distribution and properties of high-mass star formation regions. I present the statistical properties of the MMB catalogue and, through the calculation of kinematic distances, investigate the resolution of distance ambiguities and explore the Galactic distribution.
The results of the first complete survey for 6668-MHz CH3OH and 6035-MHz excited-state OH masers in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds are presented. A new 6668-MHz CH3OH maser in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been detected towards the star-forming region N 160a, together with a new 6035-MHz excited-state OH maser detected towards N 157a. We also re-observed the previously known 6668-MHz CH3OH masers and the single known 6035-MHz OH maser. Neither maser transition was detected above ~0.13 Jy in the Small Magellanic Cloud. All observations were initially made using the CH3OH Multibeam (MMB) survey receiver on the 64-m Parkes radio telescope as part of the overall MMB project. Accurate positions were measured with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). In a comparison of the star formation maser populations in the Magellanic Clouds and our Galaxy, the LMC maser populations are demonstrated to be smaller than their Milky Way counterparts. CH3OH masers are under-abundant by a factor of ~50, whilst OH and H2O masers are a factor of ~10 less abundant than our Galaxy.