To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We investigated the relations between deficit as part of schizophrenic symptomatology and the popular but unclear concept of quality of life (QOL). In a 47-patient sample, subjective QOL was compared in schizophrenics with and without the deficit syndrome. Self- and hetero-rated QOL is more impaired in deficit patients. Differences between deficit and non-deficit groups are more significant as the index used for measuring QOL gets less “behavioral” and more “psycho-pathological”. These results are consistent with existing literature. The “behavioral” dimensions of Heinrichs’ quality of life scale (QLS) are less discriminative between deficit and non-deficit schizophrenics, but they are more independent of the symptoms. They might have a special clinical meaning, which needs to be defined. The concepts of QOL (as used in QLS) and deficit symptomatology are partially redundant. QLS might be an inappropriate, or at least un-specific measure of QOL.
The quality of life concept has been increasingly used as a major tool for patient care and clinical investigations. The Heinrichs quality of life scale (QLS) is the quality of life assessment method widely used in schizophrenic patients. The QLS was translated into its French version by J.D.Guelfi according the back-translation method. This version of the validation study included 60 schizophrenic inpatients. The scale possesses acceptable psychometric qualities. The test-retest reliability is good for nearly all items of the scale and for the categories and overall score. The internal consistency alpha-coefficients were 0.9 for the global score and varied between 0.6 and 0.9 according to the category. Factor analysis elicited four factors. Convergent validity is good. Recommendations for future use of the QLS are proposed.
Investigamos las relaciones entre el déficit como parte de los síntomas esquizofrénicos y el concepto popular pero poco claro de calidad de vida (CDV). En una muestra de 47 pacientes, se comparó la CDV subjetiva en esquizofrénicos con y sin el síndrome de déficit. La CDV hetero- y autoevaluada está más deteriorada en los pacientes de déficit. Las diferencias entre los grupos con deficit y sin déficit son más significativas cuando el índice utilizado para medir la CDV es menos “conductual” y más “psicopatológico”. Estos resultados están de acuerdo con las publicaciones existentes. Las dimensiones “conductuales” de la Escala de Calidad de Vida de Heinrichs (QLS) son menos discriminativas entre los esquizofrénicos con déficit y sin déficit, pero son más independientes de los síntomas. Podrían tener un significado clínico especial, que es preciso definir. Los conceptos de CDV (como se utiliza en la QLS) y síntomas de déficit son par-cialmente redundantes. La QLS podría ser una medida inapropiada, o al menos inespecífica, de la CDV.
Strained Silicon On Insulator wafers are today envisioned as a natural and powerfulenhancement to standard SOI and/or bulk-like strained Si layers. For MOSFETs applications, thisnew technology potentially combines enhanced devices scalability allowed by thin films andenhanced electron and hole mobility in strained silicon. This paper is intended to demonstrate byexperimental results how a layer transfer technique such as the Smart Cut™ technology can be usedto obtain good quality tensile Strained Silicon On insulator wafers. Detailed experiments andcharacterizations will be used to characterize these engineered substrates and show that they arecompatible with the applications.
El concepto de calidad de vida se ha utilizado cada vez más como una herramienta importante para la asistencia del paciente y las investigaciones clínicas. La Escala de calidad de vida de Heinrichs (QLS) es un método de evaluación de la calidad de vida muy utilizado en pacientes esquizofrénicos. J. D. Guelfi tradujo la QLS a su versión francesa según el método de retraducción. Esta versión del estudio de validación incluyó a 60 pacientes esquizofrénicos hospitalizados. La escala posee cualidades psicométricas aceptables. La fiabilidad test-retest es buena para casi todos los elementos de la escala y para las categorías y la puntuación global. El coeficiente alfa de consistencia interna fue 0,9 para la puntuación global y variaba entre 0,6 y 0,9 según la categoría. El análisis factorial produjo cuatro factores. La validez convergente es buena. Se proponen recomendaciones para el uso futuro de la QLS.
In Africa, the term dry forest covers vegetation types dominated by a more or less continuous tree cover (70%), experiencing pronounced drought during more than three months per year, and occurring within the savanna biome. They may be called (open) woodlands or (dense) dry forests according to tree density and understory structure (Menaut 1983). The Yangambi classification establishes the following (Boughey, 1957a, b; Monod, 1963; Aubréville, 1965).
A woodland has an upper stratum of deciduous trees of small or medium size, with their crowns more or less touching above a sparse woody understory. Tree density is high enough to affect the herbaceous stratum which differs floristically from the adjacent savanna. The ground layer consists of grasses, herbs and suffrutescent plants in sufficient density to allow for annual burnings. The canopy of a woodland tends to be dominated by one or very few species.
A dry forest, strictly speaking, is defined as a closed stand with several woody strata. The grass layer, when present, is weak and discontinuous, only allowing for episodic and sparse fires. In most cases, the trees of the upper stratum are deciduous whereas the understory is composed of evergreen and/or deciduous shrubs which differ from the canopy floristically. The canopy is multispecific and often devoid of woodland dominants. In both dry forest and woodland, the tree species which make up most of the canopy are present but never dominant in the surrounding savanna.
Some authors have considered dry forests to be a tropophilous extension of the rain forest, with adaptations to xeric conditions in characteristics of stems but not of leaves (Schnell, 1976–7).
The food habits of four hypogeous Macrotermitinae species were studied using stable carbon isotope analysis in several biotopes of a humid savanna of West Africa (Lamto, Côte d'Ivoire). The proportion of woody and herbaceous material in the diet of the different species was determined by measuring the 13C natural abundance in the fungus comb. The diet varied with season and biotope, especially tree density. The results confirm the flexibility of the food habits of the fungus-growing termites as a consequence of their exosymbiosis with the fungus Termitomyces sp.
Two weeks after irrigation there was a temporary water-table between 30 and 127 cm. below the soil surface in four different parts of a grapefruit orchard. As the temporary water-table rose closer to the soil surface the percentage of soil water in the root zone increased and tree size, number of leaves per branch, and leaf size all decreased. Shallow water-tables also induced more die-back and reduced yields significantly. Analyses of soils at various sites indicated that there was no problem of salinity or alkalinity, but physical soil analyses showed that the percentage of clay increased with increased shallowness of the water-table, in line with the soil moisture characteristic curves.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.