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Four decades of war, political upheaval, economic deprivation and forced displacement have profoundly affected both in-country and refugee Afghan populations.
We reviewed literature on mental health and psychosocial well-being, to assess the current evidence and describe mental healthcare systems, including government programmes and community-based interventions.
In 2022, we conducted a systematic search in Google Scholar, PTSDpubs, PubMed and PsycINFO, and a hand search of grey literature (N = 214 papers). We identified the main factors driving the epidemiology of mental health problems, culturally salient understandings of psychological distress, coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours, and interventions for mental health and psychosocial support.
Mental health problems and psychological distress show higher risks for women, ethnic minorities, people with disabilities and youth. Issues of suicidality and drug use are emerging problems that are understudied. Afghans use specific vocabulary to convey psychological distress, drawing on culturally relevant concepts of body–mind relationships. Coping strategies are largely embedded in one's faith and family. Over the past two decades, concerted efforts were made to integrate mental health into the nation's healthcare system, train cadres of psychosocial counsellors, and develop community-based psychosocial initiatives with the help of non-governmental organisations. A small but growing body of research is emerging around psychological interventions adapted to Afghan contexts and culture.
We make four recommendations to promote health equity and sustainable systems of care. Interventions must build cultural relevance, invest in community-based psychosocial support and evidence-based psychological interventions, maintain core mental health services at logical points of access and foster integrated systems of care.
We introduce business-to-business (B2B) relationships into an otherwise standard model to revisit two aspects of price dynamics in a unified analysis. On one side, the pass-through of cost shocks to prices is empirically incomplete. On the other side, the literature contains conjectures that long-term relationships may reduce the allocative role of price changes. After a partial equilibrium analysis of these aspects, we consider the general equilibrium effects. The formation of B2B relationships implies that the trade of intermediate goods depends on search, bargaining, and the adjustment along the intensive margin as opposed to the extensive margin. We find that, when this adjustment is costly, retailers have a relatively high bargaining power, and mismatch shocks are possible, the model can account for the second moments of the US producer price index and other variables. In this case, although its allocative role is low, the intermediate goods price affects the allocation of goods through the search externalities and is sufficiently volatile. The analysis includes several sensitivity tests and comparisons.
We summarize a series of numerical experiments of collisional dynamics in dense stellar systems such as globular clusters (GCs) and in weakly collisional plasmas using a novel simulation technique, the so-calledMulti-particle collision (MPC) method, alternative to Fokker-Planck and Monte Carlo approaches. MPC is related to particle-mesh approaches for the computation of self consistent long-range fields, ensuring that simulation time scales with N log N in the number of particles, as opposed to N2 for direct N-body. The collisional relaxation effects are modelled by computing particle interactions based on a collision operator approach that ensures rigorous conservation of energy and momenta and depends only on particles velocities and cell-based integrated quantities.
In recent years, an increasing amount of attention is being paid to the gravitational few-body problem and its applications to astrophysical scenarios. Among the main reasons for this renewed interest there is large number of newly discovered exoplanets and the detection of gravitational waves. Here, we present two numerical codes to model three- and few-body systems, called tsunami and okinami. The tsunami code is a direct few-body code with algorithmic regularization, tidal forces and post-Newtonian corrections. okinami is a secular, double-averaged code for stable hierarchical triples. We describe the main methods implemented in our codes, and review our recent results and applications to gravitational-wave astronomy, planetary science and statistical escape theories.
The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality has as its main foundation a Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), defined by anxiolytic drugs, in which high trait sensitivity should lead to internalising, anxiety, disorders. Conversely, it has been suggested that low BIS sensitivity would be a characteristic of externalising disorders. BIS output should lead to increased arousal and attention as well as behavioural inhibition. Here, therefore, we tested whether an externalising disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), involves low BIS sensitivity. Goal-Conflict-Specific Rhythmicity (GCSR) in an auditory Stop Signal Task is a right frontal EEG biomarker of BIS function. We assessed children diagnosed with ADHD-I (inattentive) or ADHD-C (combined) and healthy control groups for GCSR in: a) an initial smaller study in Dunedin, New Zealand (population ~120,000: 15 control, 10 ADHD-I, 10 ADHD-C); and b) a main larger one in Tehran, Iran (population ~9 [city]-16 [metropolis] million: 27 control, 18 ADHD-I, 21 ADHD-C). GCSR was clear in controls (particularly at 6–7 Hz) and in ADHD-C (particularly at 8–9 Hz) but was reduced in ADHD-I. Reduced attention and arousal in ADHD-I could be due, in part, to BIS dysfunction. However, hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD-C are unlikely to reflect reduced BIS activity. Increased GCSR frequency in ADHD-C may be due to increased input to the BIS. BIS dysfunction may contribute to some aspects of ADHD (and potentially other externalising disorders) and to some differences between the ADHD subtypes but other prefrontal systems (and, e.g. dopamine) are also important.
High-density cusps of compact remnants are expected to form around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei via dynamical friction and two-body relaxation. Due to the high density, binaries in orbit around the SMBH can frequently undergo close encounters with compact remnants from the cusp. This can affect the gravitational wave merger rate of compact binaries in galactic nuclei. We investigated this process by means of high accuracy few-body simulations, performed with a novel Monte Carlo approach. We find that, around a SgrA*-like SMBH, three-body encounters increase the number of mergers by a factor of 3. This occurs because close encounters can reorient binaries with respect to their orbital plane around the SMBH, increasing the number of Kozai-Lidov induced mergers. We obtain a binary black hole merger rate of ГMW = 1.6 × 10−6 yr−1 per Milky Way-like nucleus.
Burrata is an Italian fresh ‘pasta filata’ cheese made from cow's milk and cream that is rapidly spreading in Europe. It has very high caloric content, and a technological protocol was developed for producing a reduced-fat type and fortifying it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetable origin. A satisfactory reduced-fat prototype was obtained by using a 14% fat cream, which was specifically developed by diluting double cream with a suspension of carob seed flour. The composition of the new cheese changed with respect to the control, but the sensory characteristics were not impaired. Moisture increased from 62·6 to 68·4%, fat on dry matter decreased from 59·1 to 34·7%, and the caloric content decreased from 1060·8 to 718 J/100 g. Proteolysis and lipolysis were not affected by the technological modifications: after 7 d storage, the electrophoretic pattern of caseins and the free fatty acids profile of experimental and control cheeses were not significantly different. Fortification of reduced-fat Burrata with PUFA was obtained by using two commercial formulates available at a compatible price with the current economic values of the cheese. The two formulates derived from flaxseeds and Carthamus tinctorius oil and allowed enrichment in C18 :3 : n3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA), and 9cis,11trans- and 10trans,12cis- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Fortification was easy to perform under a technical point of view, but the negative sensory impact limited fortification at a maximum of 7·0 mg g-1 fat ALA and 6·8 g-1 fat CLA.
The rate with which attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed varies widely across countries, suggesting that cultural factors influence the clinical interpretation of child behaviour. This study estimated the point prevalence of severe ADHD among elementary and middle-school Italian children.
An epidemiological sample of 2016 children attending 2nd–8th grade in the Italian regions of Tuscany and Latium was selected based on census distribution of the school-age population. Teachers completed the Italian version of the ADHD Rating Scale for Teachers (SDAI). For children with at least six inattention symptoms and/or at least six hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms rated ‘very often’ by the teachers, the parents completed the Italian ADHD Rating Scale for Parents (SDAG). Children with documented ADHD symptoms at both school and home received a complete psychiatric interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL).
Of the 1887 assessed children, 4.45% (95% CI 3.58–5.51) met the ADHD cut-off on teacher ratings, 1.43% (0.96–2.12) had ADHD symptoms endorsed by both teacher and parent, and 1.32% (0.87–1.97) were further confirmed by the psychiatric evaluation. The male:female ratio was 7:1. The inattentive type accounted for about half of the ADHD cases.
When applying stringent criteria for both severity and pervasiveness of symptoms, it is estimated that about 1.3% of the Italian elementary and middle-school children suffer from severe ADHD.
We employed ab initio global structural prediction algorithms to obtain the ground-state structure of CuBO2 This is a very promising p-type transparent conductive oxide that was synthesized recently, and thought to belong to the delafossite family. We proved that the true ground state is certainly not the delafossite structure, and that the most promising candidate is a low symmetry monoclinic phase. This is still a layered structure, but with boron and copper having a different coordination with respect to the delafossite phase.
GeorgeVonLengerkeMeyer learned, not at all happily, that he was to be American Ambassador to St. Petersburg. This was a disappointment to himself and his family, for President Theodore Roosevelt had earlier suggested that Meyer be sent to Paris. And St. Petersburg seemed a long way off — in distance, time, culture, and atmosphere — from Paris. Nevertheless Meyer recognized that the appointment was a presidential compliment. For almost a year the President had been working to end the bloody war that had begun with the Japanese attack on the Russian naval base at Port Arthur on February 8, 1904, and had surprisingly resulted in one Japanese victory after another. Roosevelt had urged peace throughout the conflict. He quickly saw the necessity of a first-class ambassador in St. Petersburg to replace Robert S. McCormick, the Chicago businessman who was a political asset but a diplomatic failure.
The titanium dioxide (TiO2) complexes are widely investigated for their striking and multipurpose capabilities. The TiO2 key feature lies in its photocatalytic activity for several reactions of social (bioengineering, environmental and artistic protection, pollution containment) and commercial (photovoltaic, alternative-energy, gas sensing) interests. The possibility to enhance specific reactions at the nanoscale by a fine tuning of the nano-sized single crystals properties boosted in the last decade the scientific research. Thus a theoretical understanding of the fundamental properties of TiO2 nanocrystals became necessary to predict and expedite the experimental effords.
We present here a characterization of TiO2 0D nanoclusters and 1D nanowires in the framework of ab initio DFT calculations. Based on both theoretical and experimental evidences we defined a stoichiometric TiO2 NC by modifying a perfect bipyramidal morphology and then used this NC as a chain repetition unit in the NW. We analyzed the effect of the surface coverage by functionalizing dangling bonds with simple adsorbates (dissociated water and hydrogens) modeling two acidic environments. These terminations are important to model the basical interactions of TiO2 nanosystems with the hydration sphere, which is always found to surround the nanosamples and toaffect their photocatalytic activity. We thus address the electronic reorganization and the surface weight in determining the global features of the nanostructures. The structural reconstruction is found to depend on the surface coverage and the experimental evidences on the structural variations can be explained by a topological analysis of the Ti-O bonds. Quantum confinement effects in the electronic properties are observed through the bandgap widening and the discretization of the energy distribution, but the surface competes to determine the energy dispersion of the electronic levels. The hydrogenated nanocrystals do show occupied levels at the bottom of the coduction bands, thus leading to metallic nanowires in one dimension. Whereas in the hydrogenated cluster such levels present a localized charge distribution with respect to the whole structure and they are also similar for the atomic orbital character and energy position to the defect states obtained by oxygens desorption. From the analysis of the electronic density of states we found that Ti-H bonds induce in-gap states above the valence bands, whereas hydration leads to occupied states that shift the valence bands to lower binding energies. Formation energy calculations reveal that surface hydration leads to the most stable nanocrystals, in agreement with the experimental findings that water coverage stabilizes the surface.
In this paper we discuss the role of local fields in the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals. Using a semiempirical tight binding approach, local field effects are included into the linear response theory, going beyond the standard independent particle approximation. The results show that local field effects give an important contribution to the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals, leading to a strong suppression of the absorption in the visible spectral range. This effect is attributed to the classical surface polarization contribution. A comparison between the atomistic tight binding approach and a classical dielectric model shows that the dielectric model gives reasonable results not only for large, but even for small silicon nanocrystals.
In hope it began; in perplexity it ended. The twenty-three-year presence of the American Young Men’s Christian Association in Russia that began in 1900 and reached a peak between 1917 and 1920, when more than 440 YMCA staffers served in that country and the Association spent almost eight million dollars for its operation, was over in 1923. In fact, the Association was required to curtail certain of its activities between 1917 and 1920 by both the conservative Kolchak movement in Siberia and the radical Bolshevik government, and eventually, like other groups, it was forced out.