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Episodic memory impairment and hippocampal pathology are hallmark features of both temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Pattern separation (PS), which enables the distinction between similar but unique experiences, is thought to contribute to successful encoding and retrieval of episodic memories. Impaired PS has been proposed as a potential mechanism underling episodic memory impairment in aMCI, but this association is less established in TLE. In this study, we examined behavioral PS in patients with TLE and explored whether profiles of performance in TLE are similar to aMCI.
Patients with TLE, aMCI, and age-matched, healthy controls (HCs) completed a modified recognition task that relies on PS for the discrimination of highly similar lure items, the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST). Group differences were evaluated and relationships between clinical characteristics, California Verbal Learning Test—Second Edition scores, and MST performance were tested in the TLE group.
Patients with TLE and aMCI demonstrated poorer PS performance relative to the HCs, but performance did not differ between the two patient groups. Neither the side of seizure focus nor having hippocampal sclerosis affected performance in TLE. However, TLE patients with clinically defined memory impairment showed the poorest performance.
Memory performance on a task that relies on PS was disrupted to a similar extent in TLE and aMCI. The MST could provide a clinically useful tool for measuring hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in TLE and other neurological disorders associated with hippocampal damage.
Previously, it was suggested that haemadipsid leeches represent an important vector of trypanosomes amongst native animals in Australia. Consequently, Chtonobdella bilineata leeches were investigated for the presence of trypanosome species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing and in vitro isolation. Phylogenetic analysis ensued to further define the populations present. PCR targeting the 28S rDNA demonstrated that over 95% of C. bilineata contained trypanosomes; diversity profiling by deep amplicon sequencing of 18S rDNA indicated the presence of four different clusters related to the Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri. Novy–MacNeal–Nicolle slopes with liquid overlay were used to isolate trypanosomes into culture that proved similar in morphology to Trypanosoma cyclops in that they contained a large numbers of acidocalcisomes. Phylogeny of 18S rDNA/GAPDH/ND5 DNA sequences from primary cultures and subclones showed the trypanosomes were monophyletic, with T. cyclops as a sister group. Blood-meal analysis of leeches showed that leeches primarily contained blood from swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolour), human (Homo sapiens) or horse (Equus sp.). The leech C. bilineata is a host for at least five lineages of Trypanosoma sp. and these are monophyletic with T. cyclops; we propose Trypanosoma cyclops australiensis as a subspecies of T. cyclops based on genetic similarity and biogeography considerations.
The purpose of this chapter is to set the stage for the book and for the upcoming chapters. We first overview classical information-theoretic problems and solutions. We then discuss emerging applications of information-theoretic methods in various data-science problems and, where applicable, refer the reader to related chapters in the book. Throughout this chapter, we highlight the perspectives, tools, and methods that play important roles in classic information-theoretic paradigms and in emerging areas of data science. Table 1.1 provides a summary of the different topics covered in this chapter and highlights the different chapters that can be read as a follow-up to these topics.
Prior to the COVID pandemic, many CTSAs employed face-to-face interactions to conduct most of their community engagement (CE) activities. During the COVID pandemic, such engagement had to be curtailed and alternatives needed to be formulated. In addition, Community Engaged Research (CEnR) teams refocused their efforts to address this public health crisis.
To obtain a general understanding of how CTSAs have conducted CE and CEnR during the COVID pandemic, we invited seven CTSA CE leaders to provide brief field reports of their activities during the pandemic. This included how their approaches to CE and CEnR were modified during the COVID-19 pandemic and key lessons learned.
We found that despite numerous challenges, all seven CTSAs CE cores were able to successfully carry out CE and CEnR. We also found that the fundamental principles of meaningful and authentic stakeholder engagement were of paramount importance during the pandemic. Through virtual approaches, all sites had considerable success in maintaining CE in during the COVID pandemic. They also leveraged existing bi-directional community partnerships to carry out meaningful and impactful research. This included both new COVID CEnR and also innovative approaches to sustain prior non-COVID research.
These findings suggest that academic-community partnerships must be fostered and sustained over the many years so that when such crises emerge, all partners can build on existing trust and mutual respect. The lessons learned and the new tools and approaches developed would be key in addressing any such future public health emergencies.
The publication industry in Austria represented a vital but relatively little-studied avenue by which Mahler reached his public. Acceptance by renowned publishing houses such as C. F. Kahnt, Schott, Peters, and others of similar prestige provided a unique demonstration of artistic accomplishment and professional credibility. Mahler thus sought this recognition from the early stages of his career and maintained his efforts in the face of initial adversity. The administrative structure, marketing strategies, and commercial goals of these businesses form the content of this chapter, with a particular focus on the situation in Vienna at such houses as Doblinger and Universal Edition. The vital role of a firm’s music editors is also considered, through the remarkable example of Josef Venantius von Wöss, an accomplished composer in his own right whose reduction of the Eighth Symphony Mahler called “magnificent” and “the best that I have ever encountered.”
Defective color vision comes in various forms and its frequency varies from population to population. This article is concerned with only the sex-linked form of essential hereditary color blindness. A model of a ‘small’ population is constructed to explore the dynamics of occurrence of color blindness. Different mutation rates are introduced for eggs and sperm. Birth and death rates of affected individuals are assumed to be the same as those in the unaffected. Simulation demonstrates that large changes in frequency occur randomly from the combined effects of mutation, transmission of genes from generation to generation and births and deaths. A reference is made to the hypothesis that observed differences in rates are due to selection in the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer.
George L. Cowgill had a major influence on the study of the ancient city of Teotihuacan and the development and promotion of quantitative methods in archaeology. His wit, teaching, and research influenced many in the profession. We draw on two published autobiographical works (Cowgill 2008a, 2013a), some unpublished autobiographical notes (Cowgill 1983), his many publications, and our own associations with George.
n-3 Long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) can improve cardiometabolic blood markers, but studies in children are limited. SNP in the FADS genes, which encode fatty acid desaturases, influence endogenous LCPUFA production. Moreover, SNP in genes that encode PPAR and apoE may modulate the effects of n-3 LCPUFA. We explored whether FADS polymorphisms were associated with blood cholesterol and TAG, insulin and glucose and whether polymorphisms in PPAR and APOE modified associations between FADS or n-3 LCPUFA status and the cardiometabolic blood markers. We measured fasting cholesterol and TAG, insulin, glucose and n-3 LCPUFA in 757 Danish 8–11-year-old children and genotyped SNP in FADS (rs1535 and rs174448), PPARG2 (rs1801282), PPARA (rs1800206) and APOE (rs7412+rs429358). Carriage of two FADS rs174448 major alleles was associated with lower TAG (P = 0·027) and higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·047). Blood n-3 LCPUFA was inversely associated with TAG and insulin in PPARG2 minor allele carriers and positively with LDL-cholesterol in major allele homozygotes (Pn-3 LCPUFA × rs180182 < 0·01). Associations between n-3 LCPUFA and cardiometabolic markers were not modified by APOE genotype (Pn-3 LCPUFA × APOE > 0·11), but interaction between FADS rs1535 and APOE showed that rs1535 major allele homozygotes who also carried APOE2 had higher HDL-cholesterol than all other genotype combinations (Prs1535 × APOE = 0·019, pairwise-P < 0·05). This indicates that FADS genotypes, which increase endogenous LCPUFA production, may beneficially affect children’s cardiometabolic profile in a partly APOE-dependent manner. Also, the degree to which children benefit from higher n-3 LCPUFA intake may depend on their PPARG2 genotype.
Wedges and frames, two much-studied strategies of American political combat, are generally thought to be partisan weapons, meant to manipulate voters into making trade-offs that favor the political actor wielding them. My inquiry here explores whether there exists anything comparably schematic to wedges and frames at work in attempts by American politicians not to polarize but to find consensus, not to cater to extremes but moderate them. Despite the seeming paucity of such efforts in American public discourse, there is one such common and as-yet untheorized scheme, which uses the two issue positions involved in wedges to overcome the ill effects of reframing and the two value dimensions involved in reframing to overcome the ill effects of wedges. I elaborate this discursive structure by examining its presence in a number of American political debates, showing how it differs from other contemporary normative-theoretic frameworks for understanding compromise in American politics.
Recent advances in machine learning (ML) promise far-reaching improvements across medical care, not least within psychiatry. While to date no psychiatric application of ML constitutes standard clinical practice, it seems crucial to get ahead of these developments and address their ethical challenges early on. Following a short general introduction concerning ML in psychiatry, we do so by focusing on schizophrenia as a paradigmatic case. Based on recent research employing ML to further the diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of schizophrenia, we discuss three hypothetical case studies of ML applications with view to their ethical dimensions. Throughout this discussion, we follow the principlist framework by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress to analyse potential problems in detail. In particular, we structure our analysis around their principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy, and justice. We conclude with a call for cautious optimism concerning the implementation of ML in psychiatry if close attention is paid to the particular intricacies of psychiatric disorders and its success evaluated based on tangible clinical benefit for patients.
Open source hardware is hardware whose design is shared online so that anyone can study, modify, distribute, make, and sell it. In spite of the increasing popularity of this alternative IP management approach, the field of OSH remains fragmented of diverse practices seeking for settlement. This challenges providers of groupware solutions to capture the specific needs of open source product development practitioners. This contribution therefore delivers a list of basic requirements and verifies them by comparing offered functions of existing groupware solutions.
The dynamics of rare X-linked recessive traits is explored by simulation. The model follows the prevalence of affected males and carrier females as separate but correlated variables. Different mutation rates and selection coefficients are introduced for males and females. A virtual population based on a published study of hemophilia B in the west of Scotland is followed at weekly intervals over many years. Speculative values of critical parameters to mimic the real population are proposed.
People aging with long-term physical disabilities (PAwLTPD), meaning individuals with onset of disability from birth through midlife, often require long-term support services (LTSS) to remain independence. The LTSS system is fragmented into aging and disability organizations with little communication between them. In addition, there are currently no evidence-based LTSS-type programs listed on the Administration for Community Living website that have been demonstrated to be effective for PAwLTPD. Because of these gaps, we have developed a community-based research network (CBRN), drawing on the practice-based research network model (PBRN), to bring together aging and disability organizations to address the lack of evidence-based programs for PAwLTPD.
Materials and Methods:
Community-based organizations serving PAwLTPD across the state of Missouri were recruited to join the CBRN. A formative process evaluation of the network was conducted after a year to evaluate the effectiveness of the network.
Nine community-based organizations across the state of Missouri joined the CBRN. CBRN members include three centers for independent living (CILs), three area agencies on aging (AAAs), one CIL/AAA hybrid, one non-CIL disability organization, and one non-AAA aging organization. To date, we have held seven meetings, provided educational opportunities for CBRN members, and launched an inaugural research study within the CBRN. Formative evaluation data indicate that CBRN members feel that participation in the CBRN is beneficial.
The PBRN model appears to be a feasible framework for use with community-based organizations to facilitate communication between agencies and to support research aimed at addressing the needs of PAwLTPD.
Patterns of interaction and attitudes in the relationships of 21 young schizophrenic patients, their parents and therapists were explored and compared with each other in this pilot study. The focus was on expressed emotion (EE), which was revealed to have an important impact on the course of the illness. In this study, the EE status of the relatives as well as of the therapists was rated using the five-minute speech sample method. Furthermore, data on the quality of interaction of therapists and parents with the patients were derived from the therapist/relative-patient interaction scale. Results showed that one-third of both the therapists and the parents were rated high on EE. High-EE relatives were rejected and perceived as inscrutable by the patients. The assessment of the therapeutic and familial relationships demonstrated the patients’ need for unequivocal communication. Differences and similarities in the interaction styles, and their implications for research and therapy are discussed.