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We examined the associations of middle childhood and adolescence nighttime sleep duration with adolescence internalizing and externalizing behavior problems per the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) questionnaires, in a cohort of 889 Colombian schoolchildren. We estimated adjusted differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in mean behavior problem t-scores in standardized units between recommended sleep duration categories and as a continuous exposure using multiple linear regression and restricted cubic spline models, respectively. Compared with sleep duration within recommendations, middle childhood sleep above recommendations was related to 4.6 (95% CI: 1.6, 7.6; p = .004) and 5.4 (95% CI: 1.2, 9.7; p = .01) adjusted units higher YSR and CBCL externalizing problem scores, respectively. In continuous exposure analyses, this association seemed restricted to children aged ≥11 years. Longer sleep, both in categories and as a continuous exposure, was also associated with increased CBCL internalizing problems. Results did not differ by sex or weekend/weekday sleep. Sleeping under recommendations in middle childhood was not significantly related to behavior problems; nevertheless, shorter sleep in adolescence, in both categorical and continuous scales, was significantly related to behavior problems. In conclusion, behavior problems in adolescence are associated with longer sleep in middle childhood and shorter sleep in adolescence.
Ageing is interrelated with the development of immunosenescence. This article focuses on one of the cell sets of the adaptive immune system, T cells, and provides a review of the known changes in T cells associated with ageing. Such fundamental changes affect both cell molecular content and internal ordering. However, acquiring a complete description of the changes at these levels would require extensive measurements of parameters and, furthermore, important fine details of the internal ordering that may be difficult to detect. Therefore, an alternative approach for the characterisation of cells consists of the performance of physical measurements of the whole cell, such as deformability measurements or migration measurements: the physical parameters, complementing the commonly used chemical biomarkers, may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of T-cell states during ageing. Mechanical measurements, among other biophysical measurements, have the advantage of their relative simplicity: one single parameter agglutinates the complex effects of the variety of changes that gradually appear in cells during ageing.
The brain functional correlates of delusions have been relatively little studied. However, a virtual reality paradigm simulating travel on the London Underground has been found to evoke referential ideation in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia, making brain activations in response to such experiences potentially identifiable.
Ninety patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 28 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed virtual reality versions of full and empty Barcelona Metro carriages.
Compared to the empty condition, viewing the full carriage was associated with activations in the visual cortex, the cuneus and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal cortex, the angular gyrus and parts of the middle and superior temporal cortex including the temporoparietal junction bilaterally. There were no significant differences in activation between groups. Nor were there activations associated with referentiality or presence of delusions generally in the patient group. However, patients with persecutory delusions showed a cluster of reduced activation compared to those without delusions in a region in the right temporal/occipital cortex.
Performance of the metro task is associated with a widespread pattern of activations, which does not distinguish schizophrenic patients and controls, or show an association with referentiality or delusions in general. However, the finding of a cluster of reduced activation close to the right temporoparietal junction in patients with persecutory delusions specifically is of potential interest, as this region is believed to play a role in social cognition.
The semiarid Caatinga is the largest Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest and Woodland (SDTFW) in the Neotropics. Yet the vast majority of the Caatinga is unprotected, with severe chronic anthropogenic use, exotic species and global warming among its most immediate threats. Here, we contrast the current Caatinga protected areas (PAs) scenery with that of other SDTFWs in the Neotropics. We also analyse the growth process of the PAs in the Caatinga over time across Brazilian PA categories and jurisdictions. The percentage of Caatinga that is protected is average among the SDTFWs. Caatinga has more state than federal PAs; however, the size of the PAs is greater under a federal jurisdiction. Nonetheless, in both jurisdictions, Environmental Protected Areas, one of the least restrictive categories, are more representative in terms of total area, corresponding to nearly 80% of the Caatinga PA system. Our results are relevant for international conservation goals because they depict the current PA scenery and clarify the challenges for achieving the actual preservation of the unique Caatinga biome.
We examined the associations of middle childhood infectious morbidity and inflammatory biomarkers with adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. We recruited 1018 Colombian schoolchildren aged 5–12 years into a cohort. We quantified white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein at enrollment and prospectively recorded incidence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and fever-associated morbidity during the first follow-up year. After a median 6 years, we assessed adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using child behavior checklist (CBCL) and youth self-report (YSR) questionnaires. Behavior problem scores were compared over biomarker and morbidity categories using mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from multivariable linear regression. Compared with children without symptoms, CBCL internalizing problem scores were an adjusted 2.5 (95% CI: 0.1, 4.9; p = .04) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 5.2; p = .003) units higher among children with moderate diarrhea with vomiting and high cough with fever rates, respectively. High cough with fever and high fever rates were associated with increased CBCL somatic complaints and anxious/depressed scores, respectively. WBC >10,000/mm3 was associated with both internalizing problem and YSR withdrawn/depressed scores. There were no associations with externalizing behavior problems. Whether or not decreasing the burden of common infections results in improved neurobehavioral outcomes warrants further investigation.
The life-histories of gold artefacts can provide rich insight into technology and culture, but so far the potential of this research approach has not been exploited in the south central Andes. Here we present the analysis of 34 gold and silver objects from the Middle Period cemetery of Casa Parroquial (San Pedro de Atacama, northern Chile), using pXRF, SEM-EDS, PIXE and digital microscopy. Chemical analyses detected variable compositions (2.4–73.1 per cent Ag and 0.2–3.4 per cent Cu) suggesting that artisans used both native gold and artificial gold-silver-copper alloys. Based on their manufacturing techniques, quality and designs, we identify two working styles, one technically more ‘careful’ than the other. Given their elemental and technological variety, together with the lack of local production evidence, we propose that these artefacts were imported as finished objects from Tiwanaku or Cochabamba and northwest Argentina. However, we identify a series of objects that were modified or reshaped as they entered a new cultural context, revealing complex life-histories. Modifications used relatively simple mechanical means: punching, cutting and folding, most likely made in multi-craft contexts by non-metallurgists from San Pedro.
We investigated trophic resource partitioning in seven syntopic anurans from low- and mid-elevation stream habitats of a tropical riparian ecosystem by utilising stomach content analysis (SCA) and stable isotope analysis (SIA). Our SCA data revealed dietary similarities, narrow trophic niche breadth, and low dietary niche overlap in Ansonia muelleri, Limnonectes magnus, Occidozyga laevis, Megophrys stejnegeri, Pulchrana grandocula, Sanguirana mearnsi, and Staurois natator which could be attributed to these anurans’ selection of available local prey items. We confirmed ant-specialisation (myrmecophagy) of the Mindanao island endemic bufonid A. muelleri based on our temporal SCA dietary data. Our SIA estimates of assimilation of potential prey sources confirmed that L. magnus, P. grandocula, and O. laevis are generalist predators, opportunistically feeding on locally abundant insect prey items. This study on trophic resource partitioning in syntopic anurans provides the first picture of trophic interactions, i.e., predation and competition in stream communities in tropical riparian zones of a watershed ecosystem in northeast Mindanao of the southern Philippines.
To examine children’s exposure to food and beverage advertising across a year of Colombian television based on whether products exceed Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)-defined nutrient thresholds.
Nutritional information was obtained for all foods and beverages advertised and used to categorise each product according to the product category (e.g. beverage, snack food) and nutritional quality based on the PAHO model for identifying products in excess of free sugars, Na or saturated fat or containing non-caloric sweeteners or trans-fat. Television audience ratings data were used to derive the average child audience (unique child viewers) per ad and the number of times ads were seen by children in a single week (weekly impressions) based on product category and nutritional quality.
All food and beverage ads on cable and over-the-air TV in Colombia in 2017.
Of all instances of TV ads, 89·3 % were of unhealthy products. A larger proportion of male and female children, as well as children from low (88·01 %), mid (89·10 %) and high (89·10 %) socio-economic status, are exposed to advertising of unhealthy products, but no significant difference was found between these proportions.
The majority of foods and beverages advertised to Colombian children are unhealthy. These findings highlight a need to implement statutory measures to reduce children’s exposure to unhealthy food advertising in Colombia, as obesity and overweight have been increasing among school-age children in Colombia, and exposure to television advertising of unhealthy foods is a known contributor to children’s food intake and obesity.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objectives are to assess the impact of cumulative grief on the development of Compassion Fatigue (CF) and Burnout Syndrome (BS) in HCPs who care for dying children. We will also evaluate the relationship between CF and cortisol patterns in HCPs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Cross-sectional study to be conducted in a Pediatric Hospital in Puerto Rico. A sample of 50 pediatric nurses will be selected to collect the data to evaluate the occurrence of CF and BS among HCP caring for children during end of life (EoL). Study subjects will include nurses who care for dying children in the Intensive Care Units and Oncology ward. Nurses working in the pediatric ward will be included as the control group. Three validated instruments (Spanish Version) will be administered (Professional Quality of Life vIV, Maslach Burnout Inventory- HSS, briefCOPE scale). Cortisol samples in saliva and hair will also be taken to determine levels in these HCPs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our expected outcome is that CF and BS will be more frequent in HCPs caring for children during EoL compared with controls and that EoL nurses will have higher scores on CF scale and more frequent dysregulated cortisol patterns. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Understanding how HCPs cope with grief caused by child death and the occurrence of CF and BO in our hispanic population allowing us to develop support strategies based on the specific HCPs needs. This knowledge will help improve HCPs’ well-being and may diminish the physiologic impact on cortisol.
South American countries are important agricultural players worldwide. Pesticides are key components of their production systems and, in some cases, complement environmentally sound systems, such as no-till, which contributes to preserving soil productivity. In this review, presented in the symposium Global Perspective on Herbicides Being Banned during the 2019 Weed Science Society of America meeting, we describe the regulatory framework and current situation of restricted and banned herbicides in South America. We also discuss where the pressure for herbicide bans is coming from and the opportunities for improving herbicide use and public perception. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Uruguay were chosen as representative countries of the region. They all have regulatory systems in place for pesticide registration and reevaluation based on science. Glyphosate, paraquat, and some 2,4-D formulations are in the spotlight. Glyphosate is being reevaluated in Brazil and, although banned within the city limits in some cities in Argentina and Uruguay, it can still be used in agriculture. Paraquat is prohibited for aerial applications in Colombia and is the only herbicide that needs a professional prescription in Uruguay. It was reevaluated in Brazil, resulting in a use-restriction phase in effect until 2020, when it will be permanently banned. Ester formulations of 2,4-D have been banned in Brazil since the early 2000s and have restrictions in some provinces in Argentina, where 2,4-D butyl and isobutyl esters will be prohibited starting April 2021. In Uruguay, atrazine is the only herbicide banned for agricultural use. The regulatory frameworks ensure that herbicides on the market are effective and safe. Reevaluation is an important part of the system and is conducted when there are reasonable concerns. There are opportunities to continue training pesticide handlers and applicators and to communicate the importance of adopting the best management practices where herbicides are part of the production system.
The hazardous environmental conditions hurricanes create might increase injury incidence almost 7 times. Therefore, a cohort study was performed at the Puerto Rico Trauma Hospital to compare morbidity and mortality patterns of patients after Hurricane Maria with a control period.
Admissions from September 20, 2017, through January 20, 2018, constituted the post-Maria period (473 patients); the corresponding months of the previous year comprised the pre-Maria period (439 patients). Comparisons were done using Pearson’s chi-square or Mann-Whitney U-tests, as appropriate. A logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mortality and the study period.
Postlandfall admissions among patients aged 40-64 y increased by 6.6%, while among subjects between ages 18 and 39 y dropped by 7.0% (P = 0.03). Falls, gunshots, and burns were the injury mechanisms that varied the most across the exposure period. The median Injury Severity Score (13 vs 12; P = 0.05) and the frequency of Glasgow Coma Scale scores ≤8 (17.1% vs 10.9%; P = 0.03) were higher among poststorm patients. Moreover, a 2-fold (odds ratio = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.07-3.47) increase in mortality was observed after Maria, when adjusting for covariates.
Following a hurricane, trauma centers might expect an older population, with more severe injuries and a 2-fold increased mortality risk.
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors in early postpartum that predict postpartum depression (PPD) at 6-8 weeks.
A prospective cohort of 309 women was studied between the 2nd-3rd days postpartum and at 6-8 weeks postpartum. Initially we administered a general information questionnaire that included obstetrical variables and history of personal and family affective disorders. Between the 2nd and 3rd days postpartum they filled out the Spanish version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberg Anxiety Trait and State Inventory (STAI-R/S), Neuroticism Dimension (EPQ), St Paul Ramsey Questionnaire (life events) and Duke Social Support Scale. At 6-8 weeks postpartum they filled out again the EPDS. Women who scored ≥10 were screened as having PPD.
The incidence of PPD at 6-8 weeks was 14.6%. After Bonferroni correction, univariated analysis showed that previous personal history of depression (p<0.001), high neuroticism (p<0.001), low social support (p<0.002) and high EPDS (p<0.001) in the immediate postpartum were associated with PPD. Logistical regression analysis identified previous personal history of depression and high initial level of depression (OR=14.6; 95%CI=4.8-12.2; p<0.001) as risk factors for PPD. The absence of signification of the Hosmer-Lemersshow test (x2 =9.654; df=8; p=0.290) indicated the goodness-of-fit of the prediction model.
A previous history of depression and EPDS≥10 in the immediate postpartum allow to identify women with high risk of PPD before leaving the Obstetric Ward.
This study has been supported in part by grants: Instituto Carlos III: GO3/184; FIS: PI041783 and FIS 05/2565.
To examine whether the postpartum depression (PPD) subgroup with positive antithyroid antibodies (Ab+) compared with the PPD subgroup without positive presence of Ab (Ab -) have a different psycho-social and psychopathological characteristics.
One hundred three (N=103) patients with PPD according with DSM-IV criteria were included. Autoimmune status of the thyroid (Thyroperoxidasa antibodies, Thyroglobulin antibodies), severity of depression and anxiety (EPDS and 21-item Hamilton and STAI-S scales), psychosocial variables (Early Trauma Inventory, Saint Paul Ramsey Questionnaire, Marital Adjustment Test) were assessed joint with other several demographics and reproductive variables.
The presence of childhood sexual abuse in PPD women increase the probability of Ab(+) (OR= 2,528 ; 95% CI =1,00-6,39). The levels of Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) titers have a strongly correlation (p<0,000) with the levels of the Early Trauma Inventory.
The results of our study give a link between early stress, the immune system, and postpartum depression.The implication of the immunitary system in the etiopathogenesis of the PPD through the long lasting sensitization of the inflammatory response system and the endocrine system in front to stress behind the CNS and their transmisors and receptors activation is discussed.
To design a scale to measure perceived reasons to stay in violent partner relationships, and to carry out a preliminar analysis of its psychometric properties.
A 44 dicotomic items (true/false) self-report scale was designed (more a last open response question), elaborated according to published studies and open interviews with battered women. The questionnaire was administered to a pilot sample of 10 women to test its viability and comprehensibility. The questionnaire was then administered to a sample of 132 battered women. Exploratory factorial analysis was used to establish the underlying empirical structure. Internal consistency was calculated by mean of Cronbach's alfa coefficient.
The factor analysis identified two empirical factors: external factor (situational factor) and internal factor (psychological factors). Cronbach's alphas were 0.856 and 0.811, respectively.
The Block Escape in Intimate Partner Violence Scale is a reliable and easily comprehensible instrument mesuring percibed reasons of permanence with the aggressor. Its usefulness in both setting, clinical and social, will allow design with great effectiveness intervention strategies suitable for each case.
This study was supported in part by grant-58/05 from the Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Instituto de la Mujer.