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This study was designed to investigate the relationship between Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and musculoskeletal system disorders and kinesiophobia levels. Eighty-four participants (41 diabetics and 43 nondiabetic individuals) self-reported their musculoskeletal problems and levels of kinesiophobia. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, nonparametric Pearson’s Chi-Square testing, and Mann–Whitney U test. Results indicated the total Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire score was 190.55 ± 261.56 for the patients with T2DM and 98.11 ± 167.31 for the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale scores were higher for the T2DM group (p < 0.05). We conclude from these findings that T2DM is associated with a higher frequency of musculoskeletal system disorders and higher levels of kinesiophobia.
Fruits and vegetables (FV) distribution interventions have been implemented as a public health strategy to increase children’s intake of FV at school settings. The purpose of this review was to examine whether snack-based FV distribution interventions can improve school-aged children’s consumption of FV.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of articles published in English, in a peer-reviewed journals, were identified by searching six databases up to August 2020. Standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95 % CI were calculated using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was quantified using I2 statistics.
Population-based studies of interventions where the main focus was the effectiveness of distributed FV as snacks to schoolchildren in North America, Europe and Pacific were included.
Forty-seven studies, reporting on fifteen different interventions, were identified; ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. All interventions were effective in increasing children’s consumption of FV, with only one intervention demonstrating a null effect. Pooled results under all classifications showed effectiveness in improving children’s consumption of FV, particularly for multi-component interventions at post-intervention (SMD 0·20, 95 % CI 0·13, 0·27) and free distribution interventions at follow-up (SMD 0·19, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·27).
Findings suggest that FV distribution interventions provide a promising avenue by which children’s consumption can be improved. Nonetheless, our results are based on a limited number of studies, and further studies should be performed to confirm these results. More consistent measurement protocols in terms of rigorous study methodologies, intervention duration and follow-up evaluation are needed to improve comparability across studies.
This study aims to report the clinical features of a cohort of patients with suspected COVID-19 from Tobruk, Libya and reflect upon the diagnosis challenge in low-resource settings.
A descriptive report of the first 100 patients with suspected COVID-19 who have visited the SARS-Cov-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus-2) (COVID-19) screening clinic at the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) in Tobruk, Libya.
The most common presenting symptoms were fever (90%), cough (89%), dyspnoea (85%), sore throat (79%), fatigue (78%), headache (64%), loss of smell (52%), loss of taste (53%), loss of appetite (43), nausea and vomiting (26%), diarrhoea (22%), and rhinorrhea (16%). 51% of the patients had lymphocytopenia while 13% had thrombocytopenia. Bilateral infiltrates was the most common radiologic finding on chest X-ray (76%), and COVID-19 IgM and /or IgG antibodies were detected in 80% of the patients, while only 37% of the patients were tested positive by the RT-PCR.
The disease continued its spread across the region. Fever, cough and dyspnoea were the main symptoms. 21% of the patients did not have any CXR abnormalities. Initial negative results for either antibody testing or RT-PCR-testing for COVID-19 do not rule out the infection.
This study aimed to compare the expression of genes regulating follicles development, survival and steroid hormones secretion in oocytes and granulosa cells (GCs) and study the correlation between their expression and follicular fluid (FF) levels of progesterone (P4) in pregnant and non-pregnant camels. In total, 138 ovarian pairs from slaughtered camels were used. Gene expression and hormonal assay were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The obtained results revealed that the number of follicles (3–8 mm) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in the FF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, no significant (P > 0.05) difference was noticed in the oestradiol (E2) level. STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in GCs and significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mRNA level was significantly lower in GCs and oocytes, and the BMP15 mRNA level was significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in FF was positively correlated with STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels in GCs and negatively correlated with BMP15 mRNA levels in oocytes and FSHR mRNA levels in GCs and oocytes of pregnant camels. It could be concluded that pregnancy-induced variations in oocytes and GC expression of BMP15, IGF1, FSHR, STAR, BCL2, and PTEN genes might be associated with a decrease in the number of follicles and an increase in the FF level of P4.
Southern states have used a variety of methods to disenfranchise African American voters. Empirical data on the effectiveness of these measures is rare. We present a unique data source from Louisiana that allows us to empirically document voter registration rates from the end of Reconstruction to the present. Using basic time series data, we document how voter registration rates changed over time in response to state restrictions. We then conduct a second analysis, which focuses on Louisiana’s use of the Understanding Clause to reduce voter registration among Blacks. We show that in parishes that used the Understanding Clause, Black registration rates dropped by nearly 30 percentage points, with little effect on white registration. The findings of this paper have important implications for understanding the potential for discrimination in the enforcement of modern, ostensibly nonracial, voter eligibility requirements, such as voter ID laws, which grant substantial discretion to local officials in determining voter eligibility.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The proposed research study will provide critical pilot data on the effect of using the prebiotic (HAMS-AB) on the gut microbiome profile, Beta-cell function and immune markers in humans with T1D. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The overall objective of this study is to assess how the prebiotic high amylose maize starch that has been acetylated and butyrylated (HAMS-AB) impacts the gut microbiome profile, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, glycemia, Beta-cell function/health and immune responses in newly diagnosed youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We are performing a pilot randomized cross-over trial. We plan to recruit 12 newly-diagnosed T1D youth with residual Beta-cell function between 12-16 years of age. We will profile the gut microbiome using metagenomics, measure stool SCFA levels using mass spectrometry, assess glycemia using continuous glucose monitoring, assess insulin production using mixed meal tolerance testing, assess Beta-cell stress using proinsulin/C-peptide levels, and test immune responses by examining cytokine levels and frequency, phenotype and function of T cell markers in peripheral blood. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thus far, we have enrolled 3 participants, 1 has completed the study. Baseline assessments indicate that we have technical feasibility of performing the above studies and measurements. Recruitment and enrollment are ongoing. We hypothesize that the use of HAMS-AB in newly diagnosed youth with T1D will (i) improve the gut microbiome profile, (ii) increase SCFA production, (iii) improve overall glycemia and Beta-cell function and (iv) modulate the immune system and mitigate autoimmunity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Given the failure to develop a cure for T1D despite multiple completed intervention studies and the unknown long-term effects of immune-modulatory therapy on those at risk for or those diagnosed with T1D, prebiotics such as HAMS-AB may offer a simple, safe, yet inexpensive and tolerated dietary alternative approach to mitigating disease.
To investigate conditional dependence relationships of impulse dyscontrol symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD).
A prospective, observational study.
Two hundred and thirty-five patients with MCI (n = 159) or SCD (n = 76) from the Prospective Study for Persons with Memory Symptoms dataset.
Items of the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist impulse dyscontrol subscale.
Stubbornness/rigidity, agitation/aggressiveness, and argumentativeness were frequent and the most central symptoms in the network. Impulsivity, the fourth most central symptom in the network, served as the bridge between these common symptoms and less central and rare symptoms.
Impulse dyscontrol in at-risk states for dementia is characterized by closely connected symptoms of irritability, agitation, and rigidity. Compulsions and difficulties in regulating rewarding behaviors are relatively isolated symptoms.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is likely to lead to a significant increase in mental health disorders among healthcare workers (HCW).
We evaluated the rates of anxiety, depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a population of HCW in the UK.
An electronic survey was conducted between the 5 June 2020 and 31 July 2020 of all hospital HCW in the West Midlands, UK using clinically validated questionnaires: the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire(PHQ-4) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Univariate analyses and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the strengths in associations between 24 independent variables and anxiety, depressive or PTSD symptoms.
There were 2638 eligible participants who completed the survey (female: 79.5%, median age: 42 years, interquartile range: 32–51). The rates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD were 34.3%, 31.2% and 24.5%, respectively. In adjusted analysis a history of mental health conditions was associated with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% CI 1.9–2.7, P < 0.001), depression (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 2.1–3.0, P < 0.001) and PTSD (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.7–2.5, P < 0.001). The availability of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), well-being support and lower exposure to moral dilemmas at work demonstrated significant negative associations with these symptoms (P ≤ 0.001).
We report higher rates of clinically significant mental health symptoms among hospital HCW following the initial COVID-19 pandemic peak in the UK. Those with a history of mental health conditions were most at risk. Adequate PPE availability, access to well-being support and reduced exposure to moral dilemmas may protect hospital HCW from mental health symptoms.
A need has been identified for affordable and scalable methods for disseminating cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) to countries with barriers to traditional methods of teaching.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of internet-based teaching versus face-to-face teaching in improving the CBT theory, assessment, and formulation skills of a group of mental health practitioners in Khartoum, Sudan.
Participants (N = 36) were randomly assigned to (a) a 3 h live lecture, or (b) a computer-based multimedia recorded lecture of the same duration. Participants were rated before and after training for their ability to assess a simulated patient and construct a CBT formulation of the presenting difficulties. Participants also rated the feasibility and acceptability of the training they had received.
Both teaching methods resulted in significant improvements in participants’ abilities to carry out the assessment and formulation tasks. However, participants allocated to computer-based teaching performed better than those allocated to live teaching (between-groups effect size d = 0.26–0.74). Both teaching methods were rated as highly acceptable and feasible by participants.
Computer-based teaching could offer a cheaper and effective method to help disseminate CBT to countries with limited resources and expertise, replacing and supplementing other costly traditional methods such as face-to-face teaching.
In this study, the CERES-Maize model was calibrated and evaluated using data from 60 farmers’ fields across Sudan (SS) and Northern Guinea (NGS) Savannas of Nigeria in 2016 and 2017 rainy seasons. The trials consisted of 10 maize varieties sown at three different sowing densities (2.6, 5.3, and 6.6 plants m−2) across farmers’ field with contrasting agronomic and nutrient management histories. Model predictions in both years and locations were close to observed data for both calibration and evaluation exercises as evidenced by low normalized root mean square error (RMSE) (≤15%), high modified d-index (> 0.6), and high model efficiency (>0.45) values for the phenology, growth, and yield data across all varieties and agro-ecologies. In both years and locations and for both calibration and evaluation exercises, very good agreements were found between observed and model-simulated grain yields, number of days to physiological maturity, above-ground biomass, and harvest index. Two separate scenario analyses were conducted using the long-term (26 years) weather records for Bunkure (representing the SS) and Zaria (representing the NGS). The early and extra-early varieties were used in the SS while the intermediate and late varieties were used in the NGS. The result of the scenario analyses showed that early and extra-early varieties grown in the SS responds to increased sowing density up to 8.8 plants m−2 when the recommended rate of N fertilizers (90 kg N ha−1) was applied. In the NGS, yield responses were observed up to a density of 6.6 plants m−2 with the application of 120 kg N ha−1 for the intermediate and late varieties. The highest mean monetary returns to land (US$1336.1 ha−1) were simulated for scenarios with 8.8 plants m−2 and 90 kg N ha−1, while the highest return to labor (US$957.7 ha−1) was simulated for scenarios with 6.6 plants m−2 and 90 Kg N ha−1 in the SS. In the NGS, monetary return per hectare was highest with a planting density of 6.6 plants m−2 with the application of 120 kg N, while the return to labor was highest for sowing density of 5.3 plants m−2 at the same N fertilizer application rates. The results of the long-term simulations predicted increases in yield and economic returns to land and labor by increasing sowing densities in the maize belts of Nigeria without applying N fertilizers above the recommended rates.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally, forcing countries to apply lockdowns and strict social distancing measures. The aim of this study was to assess eating habits and lifestyle behaviours among residents of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region during the lockdown. A cross-sectional study among adult residents of the MENA region was conducted using an online questionnaire designed on Google Forms during April 2020. A total of 2970 participants from eighteen countries participated in the present study. During the pandemic, over 30 % reported weight gain, 6·2 % consumed five or more meals per d compared with 2·2 % before the pandemic (P < 0·001) and 48·8 % did not consume fruits on a daily basis. Moreover, 39·1 % did not engage in physical activity, and over 35 % spent more than 5 h/d on screens. A significant association between the frequency of training during the pandemic and the reported change in weight was found (P < 0·001). A significantly higher percentage of participants reported physical and emotional exhaustion, irritability and tension either all the time or a large part of the time during the pandemic (P < 0·001). Although a high percentage of participants reported sleeping more hours per night during the pandemic, 63 % had sleep disturbances. The study highlights that the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity and psychological problems among adults in the MENA region.
The syrinx is the main source for phonation in birds, its function is analogous to the mammalian larynx. Birds have both a larynx and a syrinx, but they use only the latter to vocalize. The objective of this work to give a detailed description of the anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural of syrinx in male budgerigars as a model of a passerine bird. The syrinx in the current study was to be found as a tracheobronchial type, it consists of cranial (tympanum) part and caudal (bronchosyringeal) part and, additionally, there are lateral vibrating membranes. The tympanum is formed of the last six tracheal rings, histologically its lamina epithelialis is a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells and interrupted by intraepithelial glands. The secretory acini appear oval and lined by pyramidal secretory cells. The lamina propria–submucosa contain numerous blood capillaries, immune cells, and telocytes (TCs). The electron microscopic examination revealed numerous blood capillaries surrounded by fibroblasts and numerous immune cells, including mast cells and wandering leukocytes, within the tympanum mucosa. Hence, this study provides a detailed knowledge about the syrinx in male budgerigars.
We sample certain results from the theory of q-series, including summation and transformation formulas, as well as some recent results which are not available in book form. Our approach is systematic and uses the Askey–Wilson calculus and Rodrigues-type formulas.
Written by experts in their respective fields, this collection of pedagogic surveys provides detailed insight and background into five separate areas at the forefront of modern research in orthogonal polynomials and special functions at a level suited to graduate students. A broad range of topics are introduced including exceptional orthogonal polynomials, q-series, applications of spectral theory to special functions, elliptic hypergeometric functions, and combinatorics of orthogonal polynomials. Exercises, examples and some open problems are provided. The volume is derived from lectures presented at the OPSF-S6 Summer School at the University of Maryland, and has been carefully edited to provide a coherent and consistent entry point for graduate students and newcomers.