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High profile terrorist attacks in major capital cities have seemingly become a regular occurrence and the resultant mass-casualty events continue to challenge health care systems. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) addresses unique terrorism-related issues relating to the mitigation, preparedness, and response measures to asymmetric, multi-modality terrorist attacks. This study is an epidemiological examination of all terrorism-related events sustained from 1970-2019, analyzing historical weapon types used and the resulting fatal injuries (FI) and non-fatal injuries (NFI) sustained.
The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks from 1970-2019. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the three terrorism-related criteria, as set by the GTD codebook. Ambiguous events were excluded. State-sponsored terrorist events do not meet the codebook’s definition, and as such, are excluded from the study. Available counts of FI and NFI in each incident were then sorted and aggregated by weapon type to enable mean and standard deviation calculations.
In total, 168,003 events were recorded from the years 1970-2019. Explosives, bombs, and/or dynamite (E/B/D) were the most commonly used weapon type and accounted for 48.78% of all terrorism events, followed by the use of firearms in 26.77% of events. A total of 339,435 FI and 496,225 NFI resulted from all terrorism events that occurred during the study period. Combined, E/B/D and firearms accounted for 75.55% of all events, 67.1% of all FI, and 79.3% of all NFI. Each individual terrorism event inflicted a mean FI rate of 2.14 FI per event (SD = 10.2) and a mean NFI rate of 3.22 NFI per event (SD = 45.19).
Although terrorism is complex and does not solely rely on death tolls as a measure of success, this analysis shows a historic mean FI rate of 2.14 and NFI rate of 3.22 per event over the past 50 years. Proven weapons such as E/B/D and firearms combine to account for over 75% of weapon types used in all events. Use of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) such as chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons has been rare (0.2%), yet has extreme high potential to inflict mass casualties with mean NFI rates of 49.62 and 28.75 for chemical and biological weapons, respectively.
Terrorism-related deaths have fallen year after year since peaking in 2014, and whilst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted terrorist organizations capacity to conduct attacks and limited their potential targets, counter-terrorism experts believe this is a short-term phenomenon with serious concerns of an escalation of violence and events in the near future. This study aims to provide an epidemiological analysis of all terrorism-related mass-fatality events (>100 fatalities) sustained between 1970-2019, including historical attack strategies, modalities used, and target selection, to better inform health care responders on the injury types they are likely to encounter.
The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks between the years 1970-2019. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the three terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD codebook. Ambiguous events were excluded. State-sponsored terrorist events do not meet the codebook’s definition, and as such, are excluded from the study. Data analysis and subsequent discussions were focused on events causing 100+ fatal injuries (FI).
In total, 168,003 events were recorded between the years 1970-2019. Of these, 85,225 (50.73%) events recorded no FI; 67,356 (40.10%) events recorded 1-10 FI; 5,791 (3.45%) events recorded 11-50 FI; 405 (0.24%) events recorded 51-100 FI; 149 (0.09%) events recorded over 100 FI; and 9,077 (5.40%) events recorded unknown number of FI.
Also, 96,905 events recorded no non-fatal injuries (NFI); 47,425 events recorded 1-10 NFI; 8,313 events recorded 11-50 NFI; 867 events recorded 51-100 NFI; 360 events recorded over 100 NFI; and 14,130 events recorded unknown number of NFI. Private citizens and property were the primary targets in 67 of the 149 high-FI events (100+ FI). Of the 149 events recording 100+ FI, 46 (30.87%) were attributed to bombings/explosions as the primary attack modality, 43 (28.86%) were armed assaults, 23 (15.44%) hostage incidents, two (1.34%) were facility/infrastructure attacks (incendiary), one (0.67%) was an unarmed assault, seven (4.70%) had unknown modalities, and 27 (18.12%) were mixed modality attacks.
The most common attack modality causing 100+ FI was the use of bombs and explosions (30.87%), followed by armed assaults (28.86%). Private citizens and properties (44.97%) were most commonly targeted, followed by government (6.04%), businesses (5.37%), police (4.70%), and airports and aircrafts (4.70%). These data will be useful for the development of training programs in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM), a rapidly emerging Disaster Medicine sub-specialty.
The mass proliferation and increasing affordability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in recent years has given rise to weaponized UAV use by terrorists, leading to mounting and credible concerns this attack methodology will be the next terrorism modus operandi. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) specialists need to consider how UAVs alter or create new mass-casualty scenarios that can further exploit existing medical preparedness vulnerabilities. With an opportunity to be proactive in disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, it is imperative this gathering storm be acknowledged and stakeholders explore how best to prepare for, respond to, and mitigate the consequences of UAV incidents.
Terrorist attacks are growing in complexity, increasing concerns around the use of chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) agents. This has led to increasing interest in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) as a Disaster Medicine (DM) sub-specialty. This study aims to provide the epidemiology of CBRN use in terrorism, to detail specific agents used, and to develop training programs for responders.
The open-source Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all CBRN attacks from January 1, 1970 through December 31, 2018. Attacks were included if they fulfilled the terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD’s Codebook. Ambiguous events or those meeting only partial criteria were excluded. The database does not include acts of state terrorism.
There were 390 total CBRN incidents, causing 930 total fatal injuries (FI) and 14,167 total non-fatal injuries (NFI). A total of 347 chemical attacks (88.9% of total) caused 921 FI (99.0%) and 13,361 NFI (94.3%). Thirty-one biological attacks (8.0%) caused nine FI (1.0%) and 806 NFI (5.7%). Twelve radiation attacks (3.1%) caused zero FI and zero NFI. There were no nuclear attacks. The use of CBRN accounted for less than 0.3% of all terrorist attacks and is a high-risk, low-frequency attack methodology.
The Taliban was implicated in 40 of the 347 chemical events, utilizing a mixture of agents including unconfirmed chemical gases (grey literature suggests white phosphorous and chlorine), contaminating water sources with pesticides, and the use of corrosive acid. The Sarin gas attack in Tokyo contributed to 5,500 NFI. Biological attacks accounted for 8.0% of CBRN attacks. Anthrax was used or suspected in 20 of the 31 events, followed by salmonella (5), ricin (3), fecal matter (1), botulinum toxin (1), and HIV (1). Radiation attacks accounted for 3.1% of CBRN attacks. Monazite was used in 10 of the 12 events, followed by iodine 131 (1) and undetermined irradiated plates (1).
Currently, CBRN are low-frequency, high-impact attack modalities and remain a concern given the rising rate of terrorist events. Counter-Terrorism Medicine is a developing DM sub-specialty focusing on the mitigation of health care risks from such events. First responders and health care workers should be aware of historic use of CBRN weapons regionally and globally, and should train and prepare to respond appropriately.
To investigate the current epidemiology of melioidosis in Yangon, Myanmar, between June 2017 and May 2019 we conducted enhanced surveillance for melioidosis in four tertiary hospitals in Yangon, where the disease was first discovered in 1911. Oxidase-positive Gram-negative rods were obtained from the microbiology laboratories and further analysed at the Department of Medical Research. Analysis included culture on Ashdown agar, the three disc sensitivity test (gentamicin, colistin and co-amoxiclav), latex agglutination, API 20 NE, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and a subset underwent molecular confirmation with a Burkholderia pseudomallei specific assay. Twenty one of 364 isolates (5.7%) were confirmed as B. pseudomallei and were mostly susceptible to the antibiotics used in standard therapy for melioidosis. Ten patients were from Yangon Region, nine were from Ayeyarwaddy region, and one each was from Kayin and Rakhine States. A history of soil contact was given by seven patients, five had diabetes mellitus and one had renal insufficiency. The patients presented with septicaemia (12 cases), pneumonia (three cases), urinary tract infection (two cases) and wound infection (four cases). Eighteen patients survived to hospital discharge. This study highlights the likelihood that melioidosis may be far more common, but underdiagnosed, in more rural parts of Myanmar as in other countries in SE Asia.
The United States (US) is ranked 22nd on the Global Terrorism Index (2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While the global number of deaths from terrorism over the past five years is down, the number of countries affected by terrorism is growing and the health care repercussions remain significant. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) is rapidly emerging as a necessary sub-specialty, and this study aims to provide the epidemiological context over the past decade supporting this need by detailing the unique injury types responders are likely to encounter and setting the stage for the development of training programs utilizing these data.
The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks in the US from 2008-2018. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the three terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD. Ambiguous events were excluded when there was uncertainty as to whether the incident met all of the criteria for inclusion in the GTD. The grey literature was reviewed, and each event was cross-matched with reputable international and national newspaper sources online to confirm or add details regarding weapon type used and, whenever available, details of victim and perpetrator fatalities and injuries.
In total, 304 events were recorded during the period of study. Of the 304 events, 117 (38.5%) used incendiary-only weapons, 80 (26.3%) used firearms as their sole weapon, 55 (18.1%) used explosives, bombs, or dynamite (E/B/D), 23 (7.6%) were melee-only, six (2.0%) used vehicles-only, four (1.3%) were chemicals-only, two (0.7%) used sabotage equipment, two (0.7%) were listed as “others,” and one (0.3%) used biological weapon. There was no recorded nuclear or radiological weapon use. In addition, 14 (4.6%) events used a mix of weapons.
In the decade from 2008 through 2018, terrorist attacks on US soil used weapons with well-understood injury-causing modalities. A total of 217 fatal injuries (FI) and 660 non-fatal injuries (NFI) were sustained as a result of these events during that period.
Incendiary weapons were the most commonly chosen methodology, followed by firearms and E/B/D attacks. Firearm events contributed to a disproportionality high fatality count while E/B/D events contributed to a disproportionally high NFI count.
China is ranked 42nd on the Global Terrorism Index (2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While China has a relatively low terrorism risk, events globally have wide-ranging repercussions for future attacks, putting first responders and emergency health workers at risk. This study aims to provide the epidemiological context for the past decade detailing the unique injury types responders are likely to encounter and to develop training programs utilizing these data.
The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks in China between the years 2008-2018. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD’s Codebook. Ambiguous events, as defined by the GTD’s Codebook, were excluded. English language grey literature was searched to ensure no events meeting these criteria were missed. A focused search of online English language newspaper articles was also performed for any terrorist events between 2008-2018.
One-hundred and eight terrorist events occurred in the study time period. Of the 108 incidents, forty-seven (43.5%) involved Explosives/Bombs/Dynamite (E/B/D) only, with an average fatality count of 2.9 and injury count of 7.5 per event. Twenty-seven (25.0%) used bladed or blunt weapons in melees with an average fatality count of 9.7 and an injury count of 8.8 per event. Five (4.6%) involved incendiary weapons with an average fatality count of 2.4 and an injury count of 7.2 per event. Two used only chemical weapons (1.8%) with no recorded deaths and an injury count of 27.0 per event. Two events had unknown weapon types (1.8%) with one recorded death and no injury count. One event used a firearm (0.9%) and led to one death and no injuries. One event used a vehicle (0.9%), which also led to one death and no recorded injuries. Twenty-three attacks used a mix of weapons (21.2%) with an average fatality count of 17.1 and an injury count of 12.0 per event.
One-hundred and eight terrorist attacks were recorded between 2008-2018 on Chinese soil using well-understood modalities. This resulted in a total of 809 recorded fatalities with 956 non-fatal injuries. The most commonly chosen methodology was E/B/D, followed by melees and the use of bladed weapons. Three events individually recorded a combined casualty toll of over 100 people.
Australia is ranked 71st on the Global Terrorism Index (GTI; 2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While it has a relatively low terrorist risk, events globally have wide-ranging repercussions putting first responders and emergency health workers at risk. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) is rapidly emerging as a sub-specialty needed to address these threats on the front line. This study aims to provide the epidemiological context for the past decade, detailing the unique injury types responders are likely to encounter, and to develop training programs utilizing these data.
The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks in Australia from the years 2009-2019. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the following terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD. Ambiguous events were excluded when there was uncertainty as to whether the incident met all of the criteria for inclusion as a GTD terrorist incident. The grey literature was reviewed, and each event was cross-matched with reputable international and national newspaper sources online to confirm or add details regarding weapon type used, and whenever available, details of victim and perpetrator fatalities and injuries.
Thirty-seven terrorist events occurred in the study time period. Of the thirty-seven incidents, twenty-six (70.2%) involved incendiary weapons, five (13.5%) involved firearms, four (10.8%) involved melee (bladed weapon/knife) attacks, two (5.4%) were explosive/bombing/dynamite attacks, and one (2.7%) was a mixed attack using both incendiary and melee weapons. All except one firearms-related incident (four out of five) resulted in either a fatality or injury or both. Every melee incident resulted in either a fatality or injury or both.
In the decade from 2009 to 2019, terrorist attacks on Australian soil have been manageable, small-scale incidents with well-understood modalities. Eleven fatalities and fourteen injuries were sustained as a result of terrorist events during that period. Incendiary weapons were the most commonly chosen methodology, followed by firearms, bladed weapons, and explosive/bombings/dynamite attacks.
Intramural myomas, the most common type of uterine leiomyoma, develop within the uterine wall and expand either inwards or outwards. According to the FIGO  leiomyoma classification system, fibroid types range from 0 to 8. Types 0, 1 and 2 are submucosal myomas, and subserosal myomas refer to type 5 to 7. Both type 3 and type 4 myomas are known as intramural myomas with no involvement of the endometrial cavity (Figure 13.1). The type 3 myomas, which are in the uterine wall but in contact with the endometrium, are more likely to distort the cavity under certain stimulations. Type 4 myomas stay entirely within the myometrium, which does not expand to either the endometrium or the serosa.
Uterine fibroids or leiomyomas are the most common benign gynaecological tumours; up to 25–30% of women may be diagnosed with fibroids during their lifetime . Women with uterine fibroids may be asymptomatic, or they may present with menstrual symptoms such as menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea, pressure symptoms, infertility, recurrent miscarriage or complications during pregnancy like red degeneration.
Uterine fibroids are very common in women of reproductive age and are mostly benign. However, they are often a cause of abnormal bleeding and, in severe cases, can cause infertility. This comprehensive guide reviews the clinical management of uterine fibroids, with a particular focus on practical surgical techniques. Engage with topics such as the anatomy of the pelvis, key theatre equipment and surgical treatments including hysteroscopic and laparoscopic techniques. Features also include debates around morcellation, and less invasive treatments such as uterine artery embolisation are also covered. An online video library of surgical procedures reinforces the practical techniques taught in the book and detailed colour images supplement the book's thorough coverage of fibroid management. This makes Modern Management of Uterine Fibroids an essential resource for practicing gynaecologists and IVF specialists, as well as students.
Heinrich Fritsch reported the first case of intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) at the end of the nineteenth century. Since 1948, a series of papers on this condition have been published by Joseph G. Asherman, which describe the frequency, aetiology and symptoms of IUA
To conduct formative research using qualitative methods among stakeholders of secondary schools to explore their perceptions, barriers and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) among Malaysian adolescents.
A qualitative study involving eight focus groups and twelve in-depth interviews. Focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data.
Four secondary schools in Perak and Selangor states (two urban and two rural schools) in Malaysia.
Focus groups were conducted with seventy-six adolescents aged 13–14 years, and in-depth interviews were conducted with four headmasters, four PA education teachers and four food canteen operators.
Stakeholders thought that adolescents’ misperceptions, limited availability of healthy options, unhealthy food preferences and affordability were important challenges preventing healthy eating at school. Low-quality physical education (PE) classes, limited adolescent participation and teachers’ commitment during lessons were perceived as barriers to adolescents being active at school. Affordability was the main challenge for adolescents from rural schools. Stakeholders perceived that a future school-based intervention should improve the availability and subsidies for healthy foods, provide health education/training for both adolescents and PE teachers, enhance active adolescent participation in PE and develop social support mechanisms to facilitate engagement with PA.
These findings provide important insights into developing school-based lifestyle interventions to improve healthy eating and strengthening PA of Malaysian adolescents.
The longitudinal relationship between muscle strength, dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents is not well understood. We investigated the trend and longitudinal effects of dietary intakes and physical activity scores on muscle strength in adolescents. This prospective cohort study consisted of 436 adolescents (134 males; 302 females) aged 13 years at baseline (2012) who were followed up at the ages of 15 (2014) and 17 (2016) years, respectively. We measured muscle strength using a calibrated hand dynamometer, estimated dietary intake with a 7-d dietary history and physical activity scores with a validated physical activity questionnaire for older children. A generalised estimating equation was used to examine the effect of dietary intakes and physical activity on muscle strength changes. The analysis was performed separately by sex. The muscle strength for males and females had increased within the 5-year period. The dietary intakes (energy and macronutrients) also increased initially but plateaued after the age of 15 years for both sexes. Females recorded a significant declining trend in physical activity scores compared with males as they grew older. A significant positive longitudinal relationship was found between protein (β = 0·035; P = 0·016), carbohydrate intake (β = 0·002; P = 0·013) and muscle strength among males. However, no longitudinal relationship was found between dietary intake, physical activity and muscle strength among females. Higher protein and carbohydrate intake among males was associated with higher muscle strength but was not observed in females. Nutrition and physical activity focusing on strength building are required in early adolescence and need to be tailored to males and females accordingly.