To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Law plays a key role in determining the level of entrepreneurial action in society. Legal rules seek to define property rights, facilitate private ordering, and impose liability for legal wrongs, thereby attempting to establish conditions under which individuals may act. These rules also channel the development of technology, regulate information flows, and determine parameters of competition. Depending on their structure and implementation, legal rules can also discourage individuals from acting. It is thus crucial to determine which legal rules and institutions best enable entrepreneurs, whose core function is to challenge incumbency. This volume assembles legal experts from diverse fields to examine the role of law in facilitating or impeding entrepreneurial action. Contributors explore issues arising in current policy debates, including the incentive effect of legal rules on startup activity; the role of law in promoting or foreclosing market entry; and the effect of entrepreneurial action on legal doctrine.
Reaching Net Zero Emissions will not be the end of the climate struggle, but only the end of the beginning. For centuries thereafter, temperatures will remain elevated, climate damages will continue to accrue, and sea levels will continue to rise. Even the urgent task of reaching Net Zero cannot be achieved rapidly by emissions reductions alone. To hasten Net Zero and minimize climate damages thereafter, we will also need massive carbon removal and storage. We may even need to reduce incoming solar radiation in order to lower unacceptably high temperatures. Such unproven and potentially risky climate interventions raise mind-blowing questions of governance and ethics. Pandora's Toolbox offers readers an accessible and authoritative introduction to both the hopes and hazards of some of humanity's most controversial technologies, which may nevertheless provide the key to saving our world.
Wesley Hohfeld is known the world over as the legal theorist who famously developed a taxonomy of legal concepts. His contributions to legal thinking have stood the test of time, remaining relevant nearly a century after they were first published. Yet, little systematic attention has been devoted to exploring the full significance of his work. Beginning with a lucid, annotated version of Hohfeld's most important article, this volume is the first to offer a comprehensive look at the scope, significance, reach, intricacies, and shortcomings of Hohfeld's work. Featuring insights from leading legal thinkers, the book also contains many of Hohfeld's previously unseen personal papers, shedding new light on the complex motivations behind Hohfeld's projects. Together, these selected papers and original essays reveal a portrait of a multifaceted and ambitious intellectual who did not live long enough to see the impact of his ideas on the study of law.
This edited collection of essays brings together leading scholars of early modern drama and playhouse culture to reflect upon the study of playing and playgoing in early modern England. With a particular focus on the player-playgoer exchange as a site of dramatic meaning-making, this book offers a timely and significant critical intervention in the field of Shakespeare and early modern drama. Working with and reflecting upon approaches drawn from literary scholarship, theatre history and performance studies, it seeks to advance the critical conversation on the interactions between: players; play-texts; performance spaces; the bodily, sensory and material experiences of the playhouse; and playgoers' responses to, and engagements with, the theatre. Through alternative methodological and theoretical approaches, previously unknown or overlooked evidence, and fresh questions asked of long-familiar materials, the volume offers a new account of early modern drama and performance that seeks to set the agenda for future research and scholarship.
Transport contributes around 11% of greenhouse gas emissions and the sector is also vulnerable to climate change. High temperatures can melt roads and distort rail lines while sea-level rise can disrupt coastal transport infrasructure. At the community level, cities and precincts can help mitigate climate change and adapt to changes by promoting active lifestyles with walking and bicyling replacing powered transport for short-distance travel and making cities more compact. Significant cost and health benefits can accrue from reduction of diseases associated with low physical activity and air pollution can also be mitigated. Increased provision and electrification of public transport based on renewable energy can decarbonise these services. The electification of sea and air transport present challenges but significant development work is underway with expected early availability of electrically powered short-haul aircraft. Phase-out of internal combustion engine cars and other vehicles is scheduled in several countries as battery-electric and hydrogen cars, buses and heavy transport vehicles emerge. Governments can help the transition with a range of policy initiatives.
Without progress on mitigation, the costs of adaptation to climate change will become prohibitive. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates the cost of adaptation in the water sector alone could exceed USD 50 billion/annum as droughts become more intense and frequent as well as causing more severe rainstorms, flooding and cyclones, and increasing water scarcity in cities. Climate change also risks melting glaciers and snow, upon which over 2 billion people depend for part of their water. Many urban water systems have been built without adequately factoring in the risks of climate change. These risks are already impacting cities: extreme droughts, or sewer systems overwhelmed by storms, sending raw sewage into streets, rivers and drinking water. Declining water availability risks higher energy and carbon intensity of water. This chapter gives a number of climate change mitigation strategies that also yield significant climate adaptation co-benefits and explores how pursuing these strategies can help improve sustainable development goals of improved productivity, public health, new jobs in water/energy efficiency functions and better social equity outcomes.
Integrity in government is one of the most important preconditions for progress towards a low-carbon future. It is founded in the public trust principle according to which all public officers – politicians and public servants – are entrusted with putting the public interest ahead of other interests. Climate is a public interest, held in common. Corruption threatens the integrity of any system of government, undermining local, national and global action on climate change. The risks are not only from the most egregious corruption such as accepting illegal benefits coincident with making decisions favouring donors, but across a spectrum extending to subtle flouting of the public trust principle. Evidence of the risks to a healthy climate posed by corruption are illustrated by the environmental performance of corrupt states, buying influence and votes in democracies and procurement practices that defy government obligations under Paris Climate Change Agreement commitments. Strategies are outlined that can be implemented by nations to honour their Paris Agreement commitments and proactively reduce risks of corruption which undermine action on climate change.
This chapter outlines the case for the global green building movement to embrace integrated ‘climate-smart’ green building design, construction and operation, which optimises new and existing buildings to achieve both mitigation and adaptation goals synergistically and cost-effectively. The climate-smart building agenda is a high priority for this sector because it can help improve the well-being, productivity and health of occupants, and provide other social equity benefits, thus helping, simultaneously, to achieve other UN Sustainable Development Goals. Focus extends to precincts, the building blocks of cities, interfacing Building and Precinct Information Modelling. Overview is provided of leading sustainability assessment and rating tools for design of buildings and precincts. The chapter identifies key stakeholders and decision makers, and how each can best play their part to enable needed changes in this sector to achieve a net zero-carbon resilient future. It examines the role of governments in addressing major market and informational failures and what policies are needed to underpin efforts by all these key actors to achieve decarbonisation of the built environment sector.
Industry is a major contributor to climate change. Many industrial sites, supply chains and customers are vulnerable to climate change and policy and consumer responses to climate change. Profits from industrial production depend on consumer demand, and how products are provided. Powerful forces such as digitalisation, dematerialisation, decentralisation, electrification, efficiency improvement and circular economies influence production and emissions Industrial firms face pressure from regulators, investors and customers. However, there is enormous potential to capture multiple benefits through aggressive, innovative decarbonisation strategies that target growth markets and involve cooperation along supply chains. Economic productivity and business competitiveness improvement can cut business costs and reduce extreme weather risk exposure, whilst positioning manufacturing companies for fast-growing markets in low-carbon resilient products and services. The chapter overviews policies national and subnational government policymakers can consider to support transition to a zero-carbon resilient industrial sector.
Human activities in forests contribute more than one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions. Forests face serious risks from climate change due to more intense and frequent mega-fires, drought and loss of ecosystem resilience resulting from biodiversity loss, which in turn impact the provision of ecosystem services. Priorities for mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change are: avoiding emissions by protecting carbon stocks in natural ecosystems; sequestering carbon through restoration of degraded ecosystems; and reducing emissions through transferring wood production to plantations on existing cleared land, improving efficiency of wood processing, reducing waste, producing higher value wood products with longer lifetimes, substituting emissions-intensive building materials with wood, and recycling. Many co-benefits arise from forest management strategies for mitigation through protection and restoration. Effective governance and policy are critical to supporting and incentivising these mitigation and adaptation strategies to invest in restoration of native forests and development of plantation forests. Alternative policy development frameworks are discussed.
The Introduction highlights the opportunities for a healthier and wealthier society following a transition to a low-carbon economy but also notes the serious consequences of inaction. It outlines the aim of the book to help policy-makers with practical guidance and summarises the various sections of the book including: the technologies available, economic projections for a low-carbon Australian economy and comparisons with two emerging giants – Indonesia and India, the sectoral analysis encompassing cities and their precincts, industry and manufacturing, tranportation and regional environments, land use, forestry and agriculture.
The transition to a low-carbon economy will increase mineral commodity demands by up to tenfold by 2050. Improving the quality of lives in developing countries will further increase resource demands. Mineral ores are critical for manufacturing low-carbon technologies. The projected increase in demand provides a major business opportunity, in turn providing a driver for the required investment to move to low-carbon mining, processing and recycling. To improve efficiency and reduce the carbon footprint of mining and metals recycling, the industry can take advantage of solar photovoltaics, wind and batteries, and renewable energy power purchase agreements, and reduce flaring, venting and fugitive emissions. Adaptation to cope with extreme weather events is critical to ensure materials can be delivered to low-carbon technology producers. Reducing exposure to climate risks through an integrated adaptation–mitigation approach lessens operational, maintenance and insurance costs. This chapter reviews tools to help the sector simultaneously achieve both climate mitigation and adaptation cost-effectively.