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Free-ranging domestic dogs Canis familiaris threaten wildlife species through predation, hybridization, competition for resources, and by contributing to the transmission of pathogens. The impacts of predation may be problematic, but in many regions the interactions of free-ranging dogs and wildlife are poorly studied. To determine the extent of the impacts of attacks by free-ranging dogs on Iranian mammals, we reviewed nearly 2 decades of social and traditional media reports and the scientific literature to gather data from across the country. We identified 160 free-ranging dog attacks (79 from academic articles, 14 from social media, and 67 from a variety of news websites) from 22 of the country's 31 provinces. Attacks by dogs were reported on 17 species, including nine Carnivora, six Artiodactyla, one Rodentia, and one Lagomorpha species. Most of the reported attacks on carnivores were on felids, including the Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus (n = 19), Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx (n = 18), caracal Caracal caracal (n = 10) and Pallas's cat Otocolobus manul (n = 8). Attacks on Artiodactyla were primarily reported for goitered gazelle Gazella subgutturosa (n = 47). Most of these attacks occurred within or adjacent to protected areas (n = 116, 73%), suggesting that free-ranging dogs are one of the most important human-associated threats to wildlife species even in protected landscapes. The impact of free-ranging dogs may be hampering conservation, and therefore we suggest some practical policy guidance for managing the impacts of free-ranging dogs on threatened species.
The identification of pediatric obesity predictors in the early stages of life is warranted, as it can influence the development of effective strategies to prevent metabolic disorders.
In this case-control study, we assessed nine risk factors for pediatric obesity, namely a birth weight >4000 grams, an exclusive breastfeeding period <4 months, the introduction of solid food at <4 months, maternal overweight, or obesity before pregnancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, the presence of gestational diabetes, paternal overweight and obesity, and paternal smoking. In order to identify the most relevant predictors of pediatric obesity, we employed a multiple logistic regression model with R2 cox snell by adjusting confounders.
In the randomly selected 509 preschool children from Tehran, children exposed to gestational diabetes had the maximum predicted probability of obesity [4.36 (1.94-9.80) %] among the analyzed risk factors. %]. The introduction of solid food at <4 months of age increased the risk of obesity by 2.98 [1.77-4.97%]. The odds ratio of childhood obesity were associated with maternal overweight and obesity [2.72(1.60-4.60) %], maternal smoking [2.21 (1.18-4.11) %], and excessive gestational weight gain [1.89 (1.23-2.91) %]. Paternal smoking and high birth weight increased the risk of pediatrics obesity >1.8 times [1.15-2.94], and > 1.5 times (1.015-2.43) respectively. There was no association between the paternal body mass index, the exclusive breastfeeding time, and the risk of pediatric obesity.
Among early risk factors, probably gestational diabetes can be considered as the most important predictor for the risk of pediatric obesity.
This study aimed to evaluate the dosimetric effects of the metal prosthesis in radiotherapy by Siemens Primus 15 MV linac accelerator. In addition, it proposed the new material could lead to less dose perturbation.
Materials and methods:
The depth dose distributions of typical hip prostheses were calculated for 15 MV photons by MCNP-4C code. Five metal prostheses were selected to reveal the correlation between material type, density and dose perturbations of prostheses. Furthermore, the effects of the location and thickness of the prosthesis on the dose perturbation were also discussed and analysed.
The results showed that the Co-Cr-Mo alloy as the prosthesis had more influence on the dose at the interface of metal tissue. The dose increased at the entrance of this prosthesis and experienced the reduction when passed through it. Finally, the impact of the new PEEK biomedical polymer materials was also investigated, and the lowest dose perturbations were introduced based on the obtained results.
It was found that the mean relative dose before and after of PEEK prosthesis was 99·2 and 97·1%, respectively. Therefore, this new biomedical polymer material was proposed to replace the current metal implants.
Emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum) is one of the most promising gene sources for drought tolerance improvement of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum). Achieving desired results requires a conscious choice of crossing parents based on general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) and also understanding the genes action involved in controlling the desired traits. In this study a 12 × 12 full diallel cross was performed using four emmer and eight durum wheats. The 132 hybrid progenies along with their parental lines were field evaluated under water-stressed and non-stressed conditions. Based on the Griffing diallel analysis both GCA and SCA effects were highly significant for all measured traits under both water treatments indicating possibility of improvement for drought tolerance. In this respect, the amount of additive effect was higher than the non-additive suggesting the chance for genetic advancement through selection. Based on Hayman's graphical analyses under the two water conditions it was revealed that several grain yield component traits were under the control of partial dominance. In contrary, grain yield and most morphological traits showed either dominance or over-dominance gene action. Grain yield had a significant positive correlation with the number of kernels per spike, kernel diameter, grain weight per spike and harvest index. These traits also had greater share of additive effects, relatively high narrow-sense heritability and high Baker ratio suggesting effective indirect selection for grain yield. Most durum × emmer hybrids had grain yield and drought tolerance indices better than the parents indicating that Iranian emmer wheats have a great genetic potential for drought tolerance improvement of durum wheat.
High salt intake is one of the leading diet-related risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of high salt intake in Iran.
A modelling study by the small area estimation method, based on a nationwide cross-sectional survey, Iran STEPwise approach to risk factor Surveillance (STEPS) 2016. The modelling estimated the prevalence of high salt intake, defined as a daily salt intake ≥ 5 g in all districts of Iran based on data from available districts. The modelling results were provided in different geographical and socio-economic scales to make the comparison possible across the country.
429 districts of all provinces of Iran, 2016.
18 635 salt intake measurements from individuals 25 years old and above who participated in the Iran STEPS 2016 survey.
All districts in Iran had a high prevalence of high salt intake. The estimated prevalence of high salt intake among females of all districts ranged between 72·68 % (95 % UI 58·48, 84·81) and 95·04 % (95 % UI 87·10, 100). Estimated prevalence for males ranged between 88·44 % (95 % UI 80·29, 96·15) and 98·64 % (95 % UI 94·97, 100). In all categorisations, males had a significantly higher prevalence of high salt intake. Among females, the population with the lower economic status had a higher salt consumption than the participants with higher economic status by investigating the concentration index.
Findings of this study highlight the high salt intake as a prominent risk factor in all Iran regions, despite some variations in different scales. More suitable population-wide policies are warranted to handle this public health issue in Iran.
There is considerable evidence indicating that similar aetiological and maintenance processes underlie depressive and anxious psychopathology. According to the literature, perfectionism and emotion regulation are two transdiagnostic constructs associated with symptoms of emotional disorders.
This study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism (CBT-P) and the unified protocol for the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders (UP).
Seventy-five participants with a range of depressive and anxiety disorders and elevated perfectionism were randomized to three conditions: CBT-P, UP or a waitlist control (WL).
Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the treatment groups reported a significantly greater pre–post reduction in the severity of symptoms of disorders, as well as a significantly greater pre–post increase in quality of life, all with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the WL group. Treatment gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. The CBT-P group reported a significantly greater pre–post reduction in perfectionism compared with UP, and the UP group reported a significantly greater pre–post improvement in emotion regulation compared with CBT-P.
Findings support CBT for perfectionism and regard UP as efficacious treatments for individuals with depression and anxiety disorders who also have dysfunctional perfectionism. It appears that perfectionism cannot be a serious obstacle to UP. As this is a preliminary study and has some limitations, it is recommended that further research be conducted.
Iran is facing a big challenge controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, and it is unclear to how individuals are engaging in preventive behaviors. This study aimed to investigate changes in preventive behaviors during the first 3 mo of the COVID-19 outbreak in Iran.
This cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1477 adults aged 18 y and older in 31 provinces of Iran. Data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire.
Overall, engagement in preventive behaviors was relatively acceptable, and more than 45% of subjects always carried out all preventive behaviors. Engaging in all preventive behaviors had a peak in the second month and obviously declined during third month. Engagement in some preventive behaviors, such as “wearing a face mask” and “keeping a safe distance from others,” was observed less than other behaviors. There was a statistically significant difference in the engagement in preventive behaviors by gender and occupation (P < 0.001).
Although engagement in preventive behaviors was relatively acceptable for the first 2 mo of the outbreak, it has declined gradually. This is a warning for public health decision makers. COVID-19 is still a crucial issue in Iran, and it is necessary that government decision be based on the fact that Iranian people must live with a coronavirus for months, with full caution and compliance toward all preventive care protocols.
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a new phenomenon manifesting as a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) which has a similar clinical presentation to Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome and severe sepsis has emerged. Although the number of MIS-C reports is increasing, rare reports in Asia is still available. To our knowledge, this study is the largest series of published MIS-C cases in Iran. We performed a retrospective study of all patients with case definition for MIS-C admitted to the three paediatric hospitals in Iran. All of these hospitals are located within the most active COVID-19 pandemic areas (Tehran, Qom and Mazandaran) in Iran. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, laboratory findings, imaging and echocardiographic findings, treatment and outcomes were collected. Between 7 March and 23 June 2020, 45 children were included in the study. The median age of children was 7 years (range between 10 months and 17 years). Common presenting symptoms include fever (91%), abdominal pain (58%), nausea/vomiting (51%), mucocutaneous rash (53%), conjunctivitis (51%) and hands and feet oedema (40%) with median duration of symptoms prior to presentation of 5 (interquartile range (IQR) 3, 7) days. Fifty-three percent of children showed lymphopaenia. Overall, the majority of cases at admission had markedly elevated inflammatory markers erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (95.5%) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (97%). Ferritin was abnormal in 11 out of 14 tested patients (73%), and it was highly elevated (>500 ng/ml) in 47% of cases. Median fibrinogen level was 210 (IQR 165, 291) mg/dl, D-dimer was 3909 (IQR 848, 4528) ng/ml and troponin was 0.6 (IQR 0.1, 26) ng/ml, respectively. Twenty out of 31 patients (64.5%) had hypoalbuminaemia. In addition, hyponatraemia was found in 64% of cases. Twenty-five patients (56%) presented with cardiac involvement and acute renal failure was observed in 13 cases (29%). Pleural, ascitic, ileitis and pericardial effusions were found in 18%, 11%, 4% and 2% of cases, respectively. In conclusion, this is a first large case series of hospitalised children who met criteria for MIS-C in Iran. There was a wide spectrum of presenting signs and symptoms; evidence of inflammation with abnormal values of CRP, ESR, D-dimer, ferritin and albumin; and multi-organ involvement.
Clinical outcomes following frozen–thawed cleavage embryo transfer versus frozen–thawed blastocyst transfer in high responder patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles are still debated. In a retrospective study, 106 high responder patients who were candidate for ‘freeze-all embryos’ were recruited. Frozen–thawed embryos were transferred at the cleavage stage (n = 53) or the blastocyst stage (n = 53). Clinical pregnancy was considered as the primary outcome and chemical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, implantation rate, and fertilization rate, as well as miscarriage rate, were measured as the secondary outcome. Clinical (47.2% vs. 24.5%), chemical (56.6% vs. 32.1%), and ongoing pregnancy rates (37.7% vs. 17%) as well as implantation rates (33.6% vs. 13.5%) were significantly higher in the blastocyst group compared with the cleavage group respectively (P < 0.05). Miscarriage rate was comparable between groups (P > 0.05). Transfer of frozen–thawed embryos at the blastocyst stage was preferable in the high responder patients to increase implantation, pregnancy and live birth rates compared with cleavage stage embryo transfer.
Broomrape species (Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp.) pose a tremendous threat to economically important crops in Iran; however, there is little information on the country’s major broomrape species, their distribution and host ranges, and the subsequent crop losses they cause. The literature from Iran describes Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers.), hemp broomrape (Orobanche ramosa L.), Phelipanche nana (Reut.) Beck, and Orobanche cumana Wallr. as the major species of broomrape infesting agricultural fields. Solanaceae crops are among the most susceptible crops to infestation by broomrape in the country, and farmers are either shifting production to crops with lesser value or abandoning crop production entirely. Among infested crops, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the most susceptible and widely infested, resulting in annual crop yield reductions of up to 40%. Chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) are also highly susceptible to broomrape infestation. Current control methods (physical, agronomical, biological, and chemical) have not proven to be effective or economic. The microscopic size of broomrape seeds and the presence of a wide range of host plants (weeds and crops) have promoted the spread of broomrape to new areas of Iran. Hence, the familiarization of farmers with the biology of broomrape would be highly effective in finding suitable control measures and in preventing its further distribution.
Extant humans are currently increasing their genetic load, which is informing present and future human microevolution. This has been a gradual process that has been rising over the last centuries as a consequence of improved sanitation, nutritional improvements, advancements in microbiology and medical interventions, which have relaxed natural selection. Moreover, a reduction in infant and child mortality and changing societal attitudes towards fertility have led to a decrease in total fertility rates (TFRs) since the 19th century. Generally speaking, decreases in differential fertility and mortality have meant that there is less opportunity for natural selection to eliminate deleterious mutations from the human gene pool. It has been argued that the average human may carry ~250–300 mutations that are mostly deleterious, as well as several hundred less-deleterious variants. These deleterious alleles in extant humans mean that our fitness is being constrained. While such alleles are viewed as reducing human fitness, they may also have had an adaptive function in the past, such as assisting in genetic complexity, sexual recombination and diploidy. Saying this, our current knowledge on these fitness compromising alleles is still lacking.
To conduct formative research using qualitative methods among stakeholders of secondary schools to explore their perceptions, barriers and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) among Malaysian adolescents.
A qualitative study involving eight focus groups and twelve in-depth interviews. Focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data.
Four secondary schools in Perak and Selangor states (two urban and two rural schools) in Malaysia.
Focus groups were conducted with seventy-six adolescents aged 13–14 years, and in-depth interviews were conducted with four headmasters, four PA education teachers and four food canteen operators.
Stakeholders thought that adolescents’ misperceptions, limited availability of healthy options, unhealthy food preferences and affordability were important challenges preventing healthy eating at school. Low-quality physical education (PE) classes, limited adolescent participation and teachers’ commitment during lessons were perceived as barriers to adolescents being active at school. Affordability was the main challenge for adolescents from rural schools. Stakeholders perceived that a future school-based intervention should improve the availability and subsidies for healthy foods, provide health education/training for both adolescents and PE teachers, enhance active adolescent participation in PE and develop social support mechanisms to facilitate engagement with PA.
These findings provide important insights into developing school-based lifestyle interventions to improve healthy eating and strengthening PA of Malaysian adolescents.
The study aimed to investigate relationship between personality characteristics and optimism in university students.
Study sample included a number of students that randomly were selected. To measure characteristics of personality questionnaire, NEO-FFI and optimism inventory was used. After collecting data Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data.
Findings showed that there were positive significant correlation between Extroversion, Agreement, Conscience and optimism in university students.
Based on results, it is recemonded that with applying plans to increase optimism elements in students, mental health will increase.
To investigate delusional beliefs and their dimensions (distress, preoccupation, conviction) across three groups, including patients with schizophrenia, their healthy family members, and normal subjects.
Subjects were 25 patients with schizophrenia, 35 of their healthy first degree relatives, and 35 normal subjects. Frequency of delusional beliefs and their dimensions were assessed using Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to examine general mental health.
Frequency of delusional beliefs was higher in the patient group, compared with family group and normal subjects. Scores of all three dimensions of beliefs among the patients were significantly higher than the normal subjects but not more than their family members. In addition, conviction in the beliefs was significantly higher in the family members as compared to normal subjects.
The existence of the delusional beliefs among the healthy family members of patients with schizophrenia and the higher conviction in these beliefs as compared to normal subjects is in keeping with the continuum notion of psychosis. Further investigations are needed to support the notion.
Addiction is one of the most terrible disasters that has struck the young people in our country and has destroyed many of our economic and human resources. This study was done to determine the effective factors in the re-addiction after quitting in Ardabil.
Methods and materials:
This study was a descriptive study in which the subjects have been addicts referring to the governmental and nongovernmental drug treating centers in Ardabil. 380 addicts were chosen on the basis of sampling. The instrument was a questionnaire of two parts. The first part consists of 16 questions about demographic factors and the second part with 39 questions was about the factors that caused re-addiction. The questionnaire had a content validity and its reliability was determined by the test-retest method.
The results show that 50.5% of the subjects ranged between 30 to 50 years. less than 89.2% city residents, 32.6% opium addicts and 34.5% had quit at least twice, and 64.7% of them had started again after 2 months, 50.6% of the addicts had mental disorders. Chi-square statistical analyses showed that there is significant relationship between personal, social, economic and family-related factors with re-addiction.
It can be concluded that the combination of personal, social, economic and family-related factors play a very important role in re-addiction. So it is recommended that for re-addiction prevention all dimensions of the addicts have to be taken into consideration when they are quitting.