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The design and performance quantification of four Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) architectures for a canard-type aircraft configuration are presented. The aero-structural sizing of the canard configuration and the sizing procedure for the proposed VTOL configurations are described and discussed. The proposed VTOL architectures are based on a range of rotor distances to the centre of gravity, quad- and tri-rotor configurations, retractable front rotors and tilt rear rotors. The aerodynamic performance, total installed power and VTOL system mass were modelled and experimentally validated. The results show that a fully exposed VTOL system penalises the Lift-over-Drag (L/D) ratio significantly relative to a clean configuration. The VTOL system mass can be reduced by up to 32% by using a tilt tri-rotor configuration when compared with an equidistant quad-rotor+pusher configuration. The fraction of installed power usable for forward flight can be increased by up to 80% with a tilt configuration. For the proposed mission, the range can be significantly increased if a tri-rotor tilt configuration is adopted in place of an equidistant quad-rotor+pusher configuration.
Using newly harmonised individual-level data on health and socio-economic environments in Latin American cities (from the Salud Urbana en América Latina (SALURBAL) study), we assessed the association between obesity and education levels and explored potential effect modification of this association by city-level socio-economic development.
This cross-sectional study used survey data collected between 2002 and 2017. Absolute and relative educational inequalities in obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, derived from measured weight and height) were calculated first. Then, a two-level mixed-effects logistic regression was run to test for effect modification of the education–obesity association by city-level socio-economic development. All analyses were stratified by sex.
One hundred seventy-six Latin American cities within eight countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru).
53 186 adults aged >18 years old.
Among women, 25 % were living with obesity and obesity was negatively associated with educational level (higher education–lower obesity) and this pattern was consistent across city-level socio-economic development. Among men, 18 % were living with obesity and there was a positive association between education and obesity (higher education–higher obesity) for men living in cities with lower levels of development, whereas for those living in cities with higher levels of development, the pattern was inverted and university education was protective of obesity.
Among women, education was protective of obesity regardless, whereas among men, it was only protective in cities with higher levels of development. These divergent results suggest the need for sex- and city-specific interventions to reduce obesity prevalence and inequalities.
Identifying dietary patterns in different environments attended by children is relevant to guide public politics. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors associated with dietary patterns of children under 2 years of age in childcare centres and at homes. This transversal study was enrolled in municipal childcare centres of Guaratuba, Paraná, Brazil. Food consumption data from 256 children were obtained by the food record method. From the consumption data, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis using the principal component method in each environment. ‘Traditional’ patterns were observed in both environments; the ‘less healthy’ pattern was found only at homes. Other patterns identified in childcare centres include ‘snacks’, ‘nutritive’ and ‘pasta and meats’; at homes, it was possible to identify patterns such as ‘milk and cereals’ and ‘mixed’. Children over 12 months presented higher scores for all the patterns in both environments. Obese children had lower scores for all the patterns in childcare centres. There was an association between maternal age below 21 years and higher adherence to a ‘less healthy’ pattern, maternal level of education less than 8 years and lower adherence to the ‘mixed’ pattern and lower familiar income per capita and higher adherence to the ‘snacks’ and ‘traditional’ patterns in childcare centres. In conclusion, adherence to dietary patterns was associated with socio-economic, demographic variables and nutritional status and further studies are needed, especially those with a longitudinal design, enabling the monitoring of dietary patterns.
Protected areas (PAs) are intended to preserve natural places, aiming to sustain ecosystem functionality and preserve biodiversity. However, PAs are spatially static, while major threats to biodiversity, such as climate and land-use change, are dynamic. The climatic conditions represented in a PA could vanish in the future and appear in other places more or less far away from the PA; these places could be considered as recipient areas potentially suited to receive propagules from the source PAs, which tend to lose the climatic conditions that motivated their protection. This study estimates the current and future climatic representativeness of mainland Iberian national parks by identifying future areas with a similar climate to those existing now in the parks and taking into account the degree of anthropogenic alteration and protection. We identify a network of ecological corridors connecting Iberian national parks with their recipient areas, as well as discriminating those most conflicting areas that impede network connectivity due to their degree of land-use transformation. Our results identify important areas for maintaining the climatic representativeness of Iberian national parks in the future, showing a substantial reduction in the climatic representativeness of the Iberian national parks. Although most of the recipient areas now have forest and semi-natural land uses and more than half of their whole area has protected status, current land uses in the Iberian Peninsula severely obstruct the corridor network connecting the parks and recipient areas.
Embryos that are produced in vitro frequently present epigenetic modifications. However, maternal supplementation with folic acid (FA) may improve oocyte maturation and embryo development, preventing epigenetic errors in the offspring. We sought to evaluate the influence of FA supplementation during in vitro maturation of grade I (GI) and grade III (GIII) bovine oocytes on embryo production rate and the expression of IGF2 and KCNQ1OT1 genes. The oocytes were matured in vitro with different concentrations of FA (0, 10, 30 and 100 μM), followed by in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. On the seventh day (D7) of culture, embryo production was evaluated and gene expression was measured using real-time qPCR. Supplementation with 10 μM of FA did not affect embryo production for GI and GIII oocytes. Moderate supplementation (30 μM) seemed to be a positive influence, increasing embryo production for GIII (P = 0.012), while the highest dose (100 μM) reduced embryo production (P = 0.010) for GI, and IGF2 expression was not detected. In GIII, only embryos whose oocyte maturation was not supplemented with FA demonstrated detected IGF2 expression. The lowest concentration of FA (10 μM) reduced KCNQ1OT1 expression (P = 0.05) on embryos from GIII oocytes. Different FA concentrations induced different effects on bovine embryo production and gene expression that was related to oocyte quality. Despite the epigenetic effects of FA, supplementation seems to be a promising factor to improve bovine embryo production if used carefully, as concentration is an important factor, especially in oocytes with impaired quality.
The genus Nolana (Solanaceae) comprises numerous species endemic to the coastal Atacama Desert of Chile and Peru of high ornamental potential and conservation value. The environments in which these species have evolved and are present today correspond to particular conditions in the midst of a hyper-arid habitat, so the study of their germination requirements and characterisation of seed dormancy becomes important in terms of conservation but also for ecological and evolutionary purposes. Different treatments were performed on mericarps of 12 species of Nolana: control (intact seeds imbibed in distilled water), scarification in funicular plug and distilled water and scarification in funicular plug and addition of GA3 (500 ppm); their permeability to water was also tested. It was determined that the species did not present physical dormancy, as had been previously reported, but rather physiological dormancy (PD). Germination results after treatments were not homogeneous among all 12 species, indicating differences in their dormancy levels. Also, the important role of the endosperm in the prevention of germination for the studied Nolana species was highlighted. Regarding the relationship between the level of PD (expressed as the percentage of germination for the most successful treatment) and the latitudinal distribution of the species or their phylogenetic closeness, it was determined that, for the studied species, their proximity in terms of clades was more relevant than their latitudinal distribution.
The peoples of southern Mesoamerica, including the Classic period Maya, are often claimed to exhibit a distinct type of spatial organization relative to contemporary urban systems. Here, we use the settlement scaling framework and properties of settlements recorded in systematic, full-coverage surveys to examine ways in which southern Mesoamerican settlement systems were both similar to and different from contemporary systems. We find that the population-area relationship in these settlements differs greatly from that reported for other agrarian settlement systems, but that more typical patterns emerge when one considers a site epicenter as the relevant social interaction area, and the population administered from a given center as the relevant interacting population. Our results imply that southern Mesoamerican populations mixed socially at a slower temporal rhythm than is typical of contemporary systems. Residential locations reflected the need to balance energetic and transport costs of farming with lower-frequency costs of commuting to central places. Nevertheless, increasing returns in activities such as civic construction were still realized through lower-frequency social mixing. These findings suggest that the primary difference between low-density urbanism and contemporary urban systems lies in the spatial and temporal rhythms of social mixing.
The fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering that mimic the extracellular matrix with bioactive and bactericidal properties could provide adequate conditions for regeneration of damaged bone. Electrospun ultrathin fiber covered with nano-hydroxyapatite is a favorable fibrous scaffold design. We developed a fast and reproducible strategy to produce polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) nanofibrous scaffolds with bactericidal and bioactive properties. Fibrous PVDF scaffolds were obtained first by the electrospinning method. Then, their surfaces were modified using oxygen plasma treatment followed by electrodeposition of nHAp. This process formed nanofibrous and superhydrophilic PVDF fibers (133.6 nm, fiber average diameter) covered with homogeneous nHAp (202.6 nm, average particle diameter) crystals. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate, indicating a Ca/P molar ratio of approximately 1.64. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy spectra identified β-phase of nHAp. Thermal analysis indicated a slight reduction in stability after nHAp electrodeposition. Bactericidal assays showed that nHAp exhibited 99.8% efficiency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The PVDF/Plasma and PVDF/nHAp groups had the highest cell viability, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase activity by 7 days after exposure of the scaffolds to MG63 cell culture. Therefore, the developed scaffolds are an exciting alternative for application in bone regeneration.
Functional impairment is a defining feature of psychotic disorders. A range of factors has been shown to influence functioning, including negative symptoms, cognitive performance and cognitive reserve (CR). However, it is not clear how these variables may affect functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. This 2-year follow-up study aimed to explore the possible mediating effects of CR on the relationship between cognitive performance or specific clinical symptoms and functional outcome.
A prospective study of non-affective FEP patients was performed (211 at baseline and 139 at follow-up). CR was entered in a path analysis model as potential mediators between cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning.
At baseline, the relationship between clinical variables or cognitive performance and functioning was not mediated by CR. At follow-up, the effect of attention (p = 0.003) and negative symptoms (p = 0.012) assessed at baseline on functioning was partially mediated by CR (p = 0.032 and 0.016), whereas the relationship between verbal memory (p = 0.057) and functioning was mediated by CR (p = 0.014). Verbal memory and positive and total subscales of PANSS assessed at follow-up were partially mediated by CR and the effect of working memory on functioning was totally mediated by CR.
Our results showed the influence of CR in mediating the relationship between cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning in FEP. In particular, CR partially mediated the relationship between some cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning at follow-up. Therefore, CR could improve our understanding of the long-term functioning of patients with a non-affective FEP.
Invasive species are widely recognized as a major threat to global diversity and an important factor associated with global change. Species distribution models (SDMs) have been widely applied to determine the range that invasive species could potentially occupy, but most examples focus on predictive variables at a single spatial scale. In this study, we simultaneously considered a broad range of variables related to climate, topography, land cover, land use, and propagule pressure to predict what areas in the southeastern United States are more susceptible to invasion by 45 invasive terrestrial plant species. Using expert-verified occurrence points from EDDMapS, we modeled invasion susceptibility at 30-m resolution for each species using a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling approach. We then analyzed how environmental predictors affected susceptibility to invasion at different spatial scales. Climatic and land-use variables, especially minimum temperature of coldest month and distance to developed areas, were good predictors of landscape susceptibility to invasion. For most of the species tested, human-disturbed systems such as developed areas and barren lands were more prone to be invaded than areas that experienced minimal human interference. As expected, we found that landscape heterogeneity and the presence of corridors for propagule dispersal significantly increased landscape susceptibility to invasion for most species. However, we also found a number of species for which the susceptibility to invasion increased in landscapes with large core areas and/or less-aggregated patches. These exceptions suggest that even though we found the expected general patterns for susceptibility to invasion among most species, the influence of landscape composition and configuration on invasion risk is species specific.
To assess the presence of nutrition declarations and nutritional quality in pre-packaged food products sold in Guatemala.
We photographed nutrition labels of pre-packaged foods. We extracted information about declaration of energy, total/saturated/trans-fats, total/added sugars and Na content (critical nutrients). We classified all products according to their degree of processing (NOVA classification) and nutritional quality (PAHO and WHO-Europe nutrient profile models).
Pre-packaged foods for sale in seven supermarkets in Guatemala City.
This study did not involve human subjects.
We assessed 3459 pre-packaged foods, including 80 % ultra-processed, 7 % processed and 13 % unprocessed/minimally processed foods or culinary ingredients. Nutritional information was available in 3021 products (87·3 %). Energy content was declared in 87·0 %; total fats in 86·1 %; saturated fats in 81·5 %; trans-fats in 48·9 %; total sugars in 70·3 %; added sugars in 0·5 % and Na/salt in 85·5 % of products. Insufficient nutrient information made impossible to assess nutritional quality in 36·6 and 17·1 % of products with the PAHO and WHO-Europe models, respectively. Using PAHO and WHO nutrient profiles, we found that 66·2 and 50 % of food products did not meet the model’s nutritional criteria.
A high proportion of pre-packaged foods with nutritional information available in Guatemalan supermarkets do not meet the nutritional criteria recommended by WHO and PAHO. Furthermore, a high proportion of products did not declare critical nutrients and many did not even provide any nutritional information. National regulations should consider making critical nutrient declarations (including trans-fats and sugars) mandatory for all products.
Previous literature supports antipsychotics’ (AP) efficacy in acute first-episode psychosis (FEP) in terms of symptomatology and functioning but also a cognitive detrimental effect. However, regarding functional recovery in stabilised patients, these effects are not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate dopaminergic/anticholinergic burden of (AP) on psychosocial functioning in FEP. We also examined whether cognitive impairment may mediate these effects on functioning.
A total of 157 FEP participants were assessed at study entry, and at 2 months and 2 years after remission of the acute episode. The primary outcomes were social functioning as measured by the functioning assessment short test (FAST). Cognitive domains were assessed as potential mediators. Dopaminergic and anticholinergic AP burden on 2-year psychosocial functioning [measured with chlorpromazine (CPZ) and drug burden index] were independent variables. Secondary outcomes were clinical and socio-demographic variables.
Mediation analysis found a statistical but not meaningful contribution of dopaminergic receptor blockade burden to worse functioning mediated by cognition (for every 600 CPZ equivalent points, 2-year FAST score increased 1.38 points). Regarding verbal memory and attention, there was an indirect effect of CPZ burden on FAST (b = 0.0045, 95% CI 0.0011–0.0091) and (b = 0.0026, 95% CI 0.0001–0.0006) respectively. However, only verbal memory post hoc analyses showed a significant indirect effect (b = 0.009, 95% CI 0.033–0.0151) adding premorbid IQ as covariate. We did not find significant results for anticholinergic burden.
CPZ dose effect over functioning is mediated by verbal memory but this association appears barely relevant.
In this work, filament based on ɛ-polycaprolactone (PCL) and containing the bioactive ceramics nanohydroxyapatite (nHap) and Laponite® (Lap) was prepared by the extrusion process. To obtain the material, a mass ratio of 89:10:1 (PCL:nHap:Lap) was used, and structural and morphological characterization was realized. In addition, cytotoxicity (using Allium cepa bulbs) and viability tests on L929 cells also were performed. The results showed that filament (diameter of 1.79 ± 0.17 mm) presented a good dispersion of nHap and Lap into polymeric matrices. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy identified typical bands at 1720, 1091, and 1045 cm−1 addressed to PCL and nHAp, In addition, Lap was identified through dispersive energy system and X-ray diffraction analyses. All filaments did not exhibit cytotoxic effects.
Ever since Hippocrates that it is acknowledged that post-partum represents a period of vulnerability for a number of psychiatric conditions in women, including postpartum psychosis.
In this poster, following a discussion of a clinical case of postpartum psychosis, we make a revision of the issue, with historical background, discussion of classification and nosologic status within international classification systems, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis.
The method used consisted in revision of literature, research of scientific articles on medline, consultation of gynecology clinical file and inpatient obstetrics and psychiatry clinical files.
From our research, we emphasize that postpartum psychosis is accountable for a small fraction of psychiatric morbidity in post-partum, occurring more frequently in primiparas, and women with similar psychiatric antecedents. Even thought there may be different clinical presentations, affective symptoms, state of conscience fluctuations and mood congruent delusions are typical. Several studies suggest that most cases are associated to bipolar disease.
Postpartum psychosis is a medical emergence. Fast identification and evaluation are crucial to implement multidisciplinary obstetrics and psychiatric care, involving family and providing adequate social support.
Alert for the efficiency of the clozapina, in high doses, in refractory mania to pharmacological treatment.
Review of literature relevant after the description of a clinical case example.
Description of a clinical case: Woman 30 years, ethnicity african, with bipolar disease type 1, with 12 years of evolution, and 11 treatments with around 1 year duration. Specifics took place with medication, such as intolerance to mood stabilizers, including lithium and valproate. Last inpatient care, with 5 months, it was for outbreak manic characterized by huge dysphoria and easy irritability with aggressiveness. There were administered antipsychotics, in high doses, and attempted electroconvulsive therapy, without success. Clinical remission has been achieved by the gradual increase of clozapina, in accordance with the patient tolerance, until 1400 mg daily without occurrence of agranulocytosis. The only intercurrence was a epileptic seizure, controlled with phenytoin.
Refractory mania is treated with clozapina in high doses, which must be administered according to the patient tolerance and clinical improvement. The risk of agranulocytosis (1-3%) is low, and is the only formal indication to suspend the treatment. The extensive metabolizers do not respond to conventional doses of psychotropic substances, they need larger doses and are more frequent in african people.
To alert to manic like symptoms in frontotemporal dementia (FTD).
Review of literature relevant in medline database.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a behavioural syndrome caused by generation of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes.
Bipolar disorder in dementia and the temporal relation between the two conditions have rarely been studied. There is a increased probability of developing a manic episode in patients with dementia.
Those with temporal FTD have impairments in emotional processing and hypomania like behavior. Moria (childish excitement or tendency to joke) or frivolous excitement are common presenting symptoms, and is difficult to distinguish to features in bipolar disease.
The correlation between mania like symptoms and FTD can be make with the help of informations of the family and computed tomography imaging. Those with temporal involvement are particularly at risk of developing deficits in emotional processing secondary to atrophy in the amygdale, anterior temporal cortex, and adjacent orbitofrontal cortex.
Early temporal involvement in FTD is associated with frivolous behavior and right temporal involvement is associated with emotional disturbances.
Moria or frivolous behavior are common presenting symptoms of FTD and the differential diagnosis is made with the help of informant's reports and computed tomography imaging.
To alert to apathy as a sub-syndrome in the spectrum dementia-depression.
Review of literature relevant in medline database.
The modern concept of apathy implies a reduced volition. Apathy may occur in depression and dementia and the differential diagnosis is difficult. Symptoms of apathy may constitute a sub-syndrome in the spectrum depression-dementia, that are characterized by lack of interest, psychomotor retardation, loss of energy and loss of appetite. Apathy may occur in dementia without depression and is significantly associated with more severe cognitive deficits. In dementia, depression may primarily result from a combination of symptoms of anxiety and apathy. Most patients with dementia and apathy had concomitant depression, but less depressed patients had concomitant apathy. The key to diagnosis may be the mood symptoms: dysthymia could be a negative emotional reaction to the progressive cognitive decline in dementia, whereas major depression could more strongly related to biological factors.
The nosological position of apathy remains obscure, with some studies suggesting that apathy and depression are independent constructs, and other studies showing a significant overlap between apathy and depression. The major interest to the type of syndrome has therapeutics implications.
The Order Suberitida is defined as a group of marine sponges without an obvious cortex, a skeleton devoid of microscleres, and with a deletion of a small loop of 15 base pairs in the secondary structure of the 28S rDNA as a molecular synapomorphy. Suberitida comprises three families and 26 genera distributed worldwide, but mostly in temperate and polar waters. Twenty species were reported along the entire Brazilian coast, and although the north-eastern coast of Brazil seems to harbour a rich sponge fauna, our current knowledge is concentrated along the south-eastern Atlantic coast. A survey was implemented along the northern coast of Brazil, and the collection allowed the identification of six species belonging to the Order Suberitida. Two of them are considered new to science: Suberites purpura sp. nov., Hymeniacidon upaonassu sp. nov., and four, Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae Santos, Nascimento & Pinheiro, 2018, Halichondria (H.) melanadocia de Laubenfels, 1936, Suberites aurantiacus (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864), and Terpios fugax Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, are re-described. Taxonomic comparisons are made for Tropical Western Atlantic species and type species of the four genera. Finally, an identification key for the Western Atlantic Suberites species is provided.