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The introduction of flowering plants into orchards can increase functional biodiversity in pome fruit cultivation. Plants provide nectar, pollen and prey resources supporting pollinators and natural enemies. However, pests may also benefit from floral diets and a careful selection of plants is necessary to reduce any risk of pest proliferation. The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest in apple growing worldwide and adults are known to consume sugars. The impact of floral diets (parsnip, wild carrot, coriander, red clover) on longevity, fecundity and fertility of adult codling moth was examined under laboratory conditions. In general, male moths lived longer than females, regardless of dietary treatments. Moths survived longest when supplied with parsnip flowers as a floral diet. Contrary to carrot, coriander resulted in higher longevity of adult C. pomonella compared to moths provided with red clover as a negative control. Adult nutrition on floral diets did not affect fecundity substantially. As expected, the majority of eggs were laid within the first week. Prolongation of moths’ lifespan by floral diets did not significantly increase the total number of eggs laid in contrast to a diet with 25% sucrose solution. According to these results, the risk of inadvertently promoting codling moth when growing selected flowering plants in the orchard will be rather low, because the fitness of the moths and especially the reproduction of the females will not be substantially enhanced.
Given the debate at the seventy-second Conference of the Association of German Jurists (Deutscher Juristentag) in September 2018 on whether German sentencing needs reform, this Article will explore this very question in greater detail. In this regard, this Article will present various empirical studies in order to demonstrate that notable inconsistencies in German sentencing practice exist. This Article will then point out that broad statutory sentencing ranges, along with fairly vague sentencing guidance, are among the main causes of these disparities. Subsequently, this Article will examine several mechanisms that selected foreign jurisdictions—namely the U.S., the U.K., and Australia—have put in place in order to enhance consistency in their sentencing practices. Three mechanisms of sentencing guidance will be distinguished here: First, formal sentencing guidelines; second, guideline judgments; and third, sentencing advisory bodies as they operate in some Australian states. This Article will compare these mechanisms and assess their merits and drawbacks. Based on this comparative study, this Article will look at how to improve consistency in German sentencing practice. In this respect, this Article will present three steps that German criminal law reform should follow, including a better sentencing framework, the strategic gathering of sentencing data, and the implementation of a flexible sentencing guidelines regime.
Since 2008, the Psycho-Social Services Vienna (PSD) have provided one of the very first comprehensive ambulant early rehabilitation programs for young people suffering from first-episode psychosis (Day Centre for Psychiatric Early Rehabilitation, TAF) in German-speaking countries.
The TAF-services stand on five pillars: (1) Ambulant setting, (2) Multiprofessional treatment, (3) Individuality, (4) Peer effects, (5) Time. The interdisciplinary treatment is based on individually agreed treatment plans. Paramount are: Dealing with the psychosis experience, personal growth, empowerment, recovery, and the return to a self-determined life. Young people suffering from first-episode psychosis are additionally confronted with the developmental tasks of individuation, autonomy, relationships, and career development. Yet, because of their young age, they generally lack previous experience with illness, coping strategies and resources. This particular situation requires a great deal of motivational work as well as addressing the individual potentials of each and every one of them.
This program has been developed in order to tackle the inadequate mental healthcare provision for individuals suffering from schizophrenic disorders: on average, it still takes five to six years until treatment is received; this is particularly concerning for the first years of illness are decisive for the further course of the disorder. The resulting consequences remain a major burden for these individuals, their social environment, and the healthcare system. That's why in the 1990s a paradigm shift has taken place: prevention, early detection and intervention instead of aftercare. Early rehabilitation aims at preventing and minimising a chronification of the illness and its related consequences.
Morphology can play a critical role in determining function in organic photovoltaic (OPV) systems. Recently molecular acceptors have showed promise to replace fullerene derivatives as acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction solar cells and have achieved >10% efficiencies in single junction devices. The nearly identical mass/electron densities between the donor (polymer) and acceptor (molecule) materials results in poor material contrast compared to fullerene-based OPVs and therefore morphology characterization using techniques that rely on mass/electron density variations poses a challenge. This inhibits a fundamental understanding of the structure–property relationships for non-fullerene acceptor materials. We demonstrate that low angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and resonant soft X-ray scattering form a set of complementary tools that can provide quantitative characterization of fullerene as well as non-fullerene based organic photovoltaic systems.
Medtech innovation briefings (MIBs) are intended to support National Health Service (NHS) decision makers and staff who are considering using new innovative medical devices and in-vitro diagnostics. MIBs are produced in support of the NHS 5-Year Forward View, specifically to accelerate innovation in new treatments and diagnostics. This project aimed to evaluate the extent to which published MIBs address national priorities set by NHS England, including in six clinical areas: cancer, mental health, dementia, diabetes, learning disabilities, and maternity.
Data was extracted from eighty-seven MIBs downloaded from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) website including: study design, amount of evidence, date of CE mark, population, cost, manufacturer, device class, publication date, and category of conditions and disease (as prescribed by NICE). Descriptive analysis was done for each variable and frequency tables were produced for MIBs by disease category.
Cardiovascular disease (n = 19) and cancer (n = 12) were the two most common conditions addressed by MIB-evaluated devices. The four medical conditions with the fewest MIBs (n = 1 each) were: diabetes, liver conditions, neurological conditions, and fertility, pregnancy and childbirth. Of the eighty-five MIBs with stated device classifications, just over half were Class IIa and IIb devices and 18 percent were in-vitro diagnostics. The earliest original CE mark was 1997, and approximately half of the devices obtained or updated their CE mark after 2010.
Chronic conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes accounted for 89 percent of total deaths in the UK in 2014, thus, the most commonly published MIBs aptly address these issues. However, MIBs are lacking in five out of six NHS priority areas. There is opportunity for innovative technologies to be reviewed via MIBs and alternative NICE pathways in the areas of diabetes, maternity, mental health, and learning disabilities and dementia.
Poly[sulfur-random-(1,3-diisopropenylbenzene)] copolymers synthesized via inverse vulcanization represent an emerging class of electrochemically active polymers recently used in cathodes for Li–S batteries, capable of realizing enhanced capacity retention (1,005 mAh/g at 100 cycles) and lifetimes of over 500 cycles. The composite cathodes are organized in complex hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) architectures, which contain several components and are challenging to understand and characterize using any single technique. Here, multimode analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and energy-dispersive X-ray/electron energy-loss spectroscopies coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and tomography were applied to explore origins of the cathode-enhanced capacity retention. The surface topography, morphology, bonding, and compositions of the cathodes created by combining sulfur copolymers with varying 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene content and conductive carbons have been investigated at multiple scales in relation to the electrochemical performance and physico-mechanical stability. We demonstrate that replacing the elemental sulfur with organosulfur copolymers improves the compositional homogeneity and compatibility between carbons and sulfur-containing domains down to sub-5 nm length scales resulting in (a) intimate wetting of nanocarbons by the copolymers at interfaces; (b) the creation of 3D percolation networks of conductive pathways involving graphitic-like outer shells of aggregated carbons; (c) concomitant improvements in the stability with preserved meso- and nanoscale porosities required for efficient charge transport.