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Law plays a key role in determining the level of entrepreneurial action in society. Legal rules seek to define property rights, facilitate private ordering, and impose liability for legal wrongs, thereby attempting to establish conditions under which individuals may act. These rules also channel the development of technology, regulate information flows, and determine parameters of competition. Depending on their structure and implementation, legal rules can also discourage individuals from acting. It is thus crucial to determine which legal rules and institutions best enable entrepreneurs, whose core function is to challenge incumbency. This volume assembles legal experts from diverse fields to examine the role of law in facilitating or impeding entrepreneurial action. Contributors explore issues arising in current policy debates, including the incentive effect of legal rules on startup activity; the role of law in promoting or foreclosing market entry; and the effect of entrepreneurial action on legal doctrine.
Indexed literature (from 2015 to 2020) on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies and machine learning algorithms (ML) pertaining to disasters and public health emergencies were reviewed. Search strategies were developed and conducted for PubMed and Compendex. Articles that met inclusion criteria were filtered iteratively by title followed by abstract review and full text review. Articles were organized to identify novel approaches and breadth of potential AI applications. A total of 1217 articles were initially retrieved by the search. Upon relevant title review, 1003 articles remained. Following abstract screening, 667 articles remained. Full text review for relevance yielded 202 articles. Articles that met inclusion criteria totaled 56 articles. Those identifying specific roles of AI and ML (17 articles) were grouped by topics highlighting utility of AI and ML in disaster and public health emergency contexts. Development and use of AI and ML have increased dramatically over the past few years. This review discusses and highlights potential contextual applications and limitations of AI and ML in disaster and public health emergency scenarios.
The use of Spratt’s dog cakes is well documented in the diaries and reminiscences of many early Antarctic expedition members. Commercially produced dog food was promoted by the likes of Spratt’s as an advanced form of animal nutrition and would have been of interest to expedition planners who were already concerned with the nutritional requirements of expedition members. An approximately 100-year-old dog cake recovered from Antarctica was compared by chemical analysis and spectroscopic methods with a series of model dog cakes and a commercial dog biscuit to determine the composition and calorific content. The presence of bone fragments within the dog cake was confirmed, whereas starch in the bulk matrix of the sample was consistent with being a mixture of wheat and oat flour, while only minimal fat or oil was present. Calorific content, while insufficient compared to a modern feed for high-performance dogs, would nonetheless have been a valuable addition to the use of dried or frozen whole meat such as seal, fish, or pemmican and contributed additional energy compared to meat alone.
Until it was destroyed in a fire in September 2020, Moria camp on the island of Lesvos, Greece, was widely referred to as ‘a living hell’. This article investigates the causes and effects of poor camp conditions from the perspectives of humanitarian actors who have worked in the camp. We argue that poor conditions are intended to perform a deterrent function for both migrants and humanitarian actors. We also argue, however, that such camps are not simply static manifestations of violent borderwork, but complex, dynamic sites of struggle in which those who live and work there continuously make and remake the camp. This can be seen, for instance, in the ways in which humanitarian actors simultaneously fill the gap resulting from the violent inaction of the state while contributing to poor camp conditions, as a result of inter-agency competition and criticism, and the broader ways in which they challenge and reinforce the violent governance of migration.
The density and salinity of High Salinity Shelf Water, a key component of Antarctic Bottom Water emanating from the Ross Sea, are intensified by brine rejection induced by ice formation within the Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya. Ocean mooring data from 2007, meteorological observations from automatic weather stations and a satellite-derived history of the opening of TNB polynya delineate variability in water column salinity linked to atmospheric forcing, with a period on the order of 10 days. Lagged correlation analysis indicates that on average salinity response lags the polynya opening by 2 days and the wind forcing by 5 days. We find stronger correlations of salinity with the wind during March through May and with the polynya open-water fraction during June through October, with decreasing lags in the latter period. A one-dimensional mixed-layer model incorporating thermodynamic ice formation captures the oscillations in salinity. A process study shows that the variability in the polynya open-water fraction governs the final salinity attained by the model as well as the salinity cycling. Variability in surface heat fluxes modulates that effect. Our work suggests that there is a more complex relationship between salinity, the polynya open-water fraction, and atmospheric forcing than previously suggested.
The role of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) as a wildlife host has complicated the management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle. Badger ranging behaviour has previously been found to be altered by culling of badgers and has been suggested to increase the transmission of bTB either among badgers or between badgers and cattle. In 2014, a five-year bTB intervention research project in a 100 km2 area in Northern Ireland was initiated involving selective removal of dual path platform (DPP) VetTB (immunoassay) test positive badgers and vaccination followed by release of DPP test negative badgers (‘Test and Vaccinate or Remove’). Home range sizes, based on position data obtained from global positioning system collared badgers, were compared between the first year of the project, where no DPP test positive badgers were removed, and follow-up years 2–4 when DPP test positive badgers were removed. A total of 105 individual badgers were followed over 21 200 collar tracking nights. Using multivariable analyses, neither annual nor monthly home ranges differed significantly in size between years, suggesting they were not significantly altered by the bTB intervention that was applied in the study area.
The site of Nokalakevi, in western Georgia, has seen significant excavation since 1973, including, since 2001, a collaborative Anglo-Georgian project. However, the interpretation of the site has largely rested on architectural analysis of standing remains and the relative dating of deposits based on the study of ceramics. Since 2013, the Anglo-Georgian Expedition to Nokalakevi has collected a diverse dataset derived from multiple scientific techniques including optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of ceramics, radiocarbon dating, δ13C and δ15N analysis and 87Sr/86Sr analysis. The full results of these analyses are reported here for the first time along with implications for the interpretation of the archaeology, which include greater detail in the site chronology but also indicators of diet and migration.
Dust impacts observations of stars and gas in galaxies by absorbing and scattering photons. Correctly accounting for the effects of dust allows for more accurate studies of a galaxy's stars and gas while also enabling the study of the dust grains themselves. The impact of dust on measurements of individual stars in a galaxy can be straightforwardly modeled as extinguishing the stellar light. Dust extinction towards a star is defined as the combined effect of absorption of photons and scattering of photons out of the line-of-sight towards the star. For integrated measurements of regions of galaxies or whole galaxies that contain multiple stars intermixed with dust, the effects of dust are termed attenuation and are harder to model. Integrated measurements include stars extinguished with different amounts of dust and scattering of photons into the measurement aperture. The infrared dust emission powered by the absorbed photons provides a vital measurement of the amount of energy absorbed by dust. This infrared measurement is not possible for individual stars but provides an important constraint in modeling the effects of dust on integrated measurements. The aim of this chapter is to provide the details of dust extinction, attenuation, and emission and recommendations for how to model the effects of dust on observations.
Smoking rates are higher for people who use mental health services, which contributes substantially to health inequalities. Smoking can lead to worse COVID-19 outcomes, yet it remains unclear whether smoking has changed for people who use mental health services. We examined smoking patterns in a large clinical cohort of people with severe mental illness, before and during the pandemic. We found high levels of nicotine dependence and heavier patterns of smoking. Although some people had reported quitting, it is likely that smoking inequalities have become further entrenched. Mental health services should seek to mitigate this modifiable risk and source of poor health.
Thirteen new genera and three new families of cheilostome Bryozoa are described from the New Zealand biogeographic region, centred on Zealandia, between 26.42° (northern Norfolk Ridge) and 54.02°S latitude (south-east Campbell Plateau) from coastal waters to bathyal depths (46‒1676 m). The new genera, comprising 15 new and one previously described Zealandian species, are: Elementella (Elementellidae n. fam.), Niwapora, Quasicallopora, Quitocallopora, Judyella (Calloporidae), Ellisantropora (Antroporidae), Rhizellisina (Ellisinidae), Radixenia (Calloporoidea incertae sedis), Granomurus (Granomuridae n. fam.), Carolanna (Bugulidae), Borioplebs (Borioplebidae n. fam.), Seabournea (Cribrilinidae) and Waeschenbachia (Romancheinidae). A new Recent species of the otherwise Eocene‒Miocene genus Vincularia is also described from deep water on the Three Kings Ridge. Two new combinations are created – Judyella precocialis (Gordon, 1984) and Ellisantropora aggregata (Gordon, 1984). Ellisantropora tilbrooki sp. nov. is also introduced for a species from Torres Strait. Four of the deep-sea genera (three from one station on the northern Norfolk Ridge, one from a station on the Three Kings Ridge) have species with plesiomorphies or distinctive skeletal characters that suggest they are relict. Almost half of the new species form spot-like colonies on hard substrata.