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This book provides a history of the way in which literature not only reflects, but actively shapes processes of globalization and our notions of global phenomena. It takes in a broad sweep of history, from antiquity, through to the era of imperialism and on to the present day. Whilst its primary focus is our own historical conjuncture, it looks at how earlier periods have shaped this by tracking key concepts that are imbricated with the concept of globalization, from translation, to empire, to pandemics and environmental collapse. Drawing on these older themes and concerns, it then traces the germ of the relation between global phenomena and literary studies into the 20th and 21st centuries, exploring key issues and frames of study such as contemporary slavery, the digital, world literature and the Anthropocene.
This unique collection of diaries and letters offers a vivid personal account of the experiences of a Jewish couple living parallel lives during the Second World War. While their children left for England just before war broke out, and Siegfried soon followed, Else Behrend was unable to obtain her visa in time, and remained in Germany. This volume includes Else's account of her years of persecution under the Nazi dictatorship, and of her life underground in Berlin, before her eventual daring escape to Switzerland on foot in 1944. Her dramatic story is presented alongside Siegfried's account of his very different experience, living penniless and in isolation in England, as well as some of her letters to her close friend and confidante, Eva. Published in English for the first time, 'Living in Two Worlds' offers an unforgettable and moving insight into the impact of the Second World War on everyday life.
What's the word that describes the process of making supportive noises when you're listening to someone? What is syntax and how does it differ from grammar? Do you know what a morpheme is? And did you know that it's not only an atom that has a nucleus? The Babel Lexicon of Language is an entertaining and accessible introduction to the key terminology involved in the study of language. It defines over 500 terms and uses contemporary language examples, explaining complex issues in an easy-to-understand way. Written by the expert editorial team behind Babel, the popular language magazine, and assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, The Babel Lexicon of Language is an invaluable resource for students, teachers and anyone with an interest in language.
This chapter discusses a multitude of energy storage mechanisms that include pumped storage hydro (PSH) systems and various forms of battery storage, as well as other forms of energy storage with varying levels of technical and commercial maturity. The role and importance of energy storage is changing with the introduction of renewable energy generation such as wind and solar photovoltaics whose output is inherently variable. This increasing generation variability has created a need for energy storage to provide energy balancing. This chapter discusses the different requirements for energy balancing within renewable-based power systems over various timescales. The requirements for balancing services will be met by different forms of energy storage, highlighting the need for a portfolio of energy storage technologies. Energy storage also provides other benefits for modern power systems including to provide network and systems services and to enhance system flexibility and resilience. This chapter concludes by exploring issues related to the integration of energy storage into electricity grids and reviews social research related to energy storage uptake.
Social cognition is frequently impaired following an acquired brain injury (ABI) but often overlooked in clinical assessments. There are few validated and appropriate measures of social cognitive abilities for ABI patients. The current study examined the validity of the Edinburgh Social Cognition Test (ESCoT, Baksh et al., 2018) in measuring social cognition following an ABI.
Forty-one patients with ABI were recruited from a rehabilitation service and completed measures of general ability, executive functions and social cognition (Faux Pas; FP, Reading the Mind in the Eyes; RME, Social Norms Questionnaire; SNQ and the ESCoT). Forty-one controls matched on age, sex and years of education also performed the RME, SNQ and ESCoT.
A diagnosis of ABI was significantly associated with poorer performance on all ESCoT measures and RME while adjusting for age, sex and years of education. In ABI patients, the ESCoT showed good internal consistency with its subcomponents and performance correlated with the other measures of social cognition demonstrating convergent validity. Better Trail Making Test performance predicted better ESCoT total, RME and SNQ scores. Higher TOPF IQ was associated with higher RME scores, while higher WAIS-IV working memory predicted better FP performance.
The ESCoT is a brief, valid and internally consistent assessment tool able to detect social cognition deficits in neurological patients. Given the prevalence of social cognition deficits in ABI and the marked impact these can have on an individual’s recovery, this assessment can be a helpful addition to a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment.
The Mormon cricket (MC), Anabrus simplex Haldeman, 1852 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), has a long and negative history with agriculture in Utah and other western states of the USA. Most A. simplex populations migrate in large groups, and their feeding can cause significant damage to forage plants and cultivated crops. Chemical pesticides are often applied, but some settings (e.g. habitats of threatened and endangered species) call for non-chemical control measures. Studies in Africa, South America, and Australia have assessed certain isolates of Metarhizium acridum as very promising pathogens for Orthoptera: Acrididae (locust) biocontrol. In the current study, two isolates of Metarhizium robertsii, one isolate of Metarhizium brunneum, one isolate of Metarhizium guizhouense, and three isolates of M. acridum were tested for infectivity to MC nymphs and adults of either sex. Based on the speed of mortality, M. robertsii (ARSEF 23 and ARSEF 2575) and M. brunneum (ARSEF 7711) were the most virulent to instars 2 to 5 MC nymphs. M. guizhouense (ARSEF 7847) from Arizona was intermediate and the M. acridum isolates (ARSEF 324, 3341, and 3609) were the slowest killers. ARSEF 2575 was also the most virulent to instar 6 and 7 nymphs and adults of MC. All of the isolates at the conidial concentration of 1 × 107 conidia ml−1 induced approximately 100% mortality by 6 days post application of fungal conidia. In conclusion, isolates ARSEF 23, ARSEF 2575, and ARSEF 7711 acted most rapidly to kill MC under laboratory conditions. The M. acridum isolates, however, have much higher tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation, which may be critical to their successful use in field application.
To estimate population-based rates and to describe clinical characteristics of hospital-acquired (HA) influenza.
US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) during 2011–2012 through 2018–2019 seasons.
Patients were identified through provider-initiated or facility-based testing. HA influenza was defined as a positive influenza test date and respiratory symptom onset >3 days after admission. Patients with positive test date >3 days after admission but missing respiratory symptom onset date were classified as possible HA influenza.
Among 94,158 influenza-associated hospitalizations, 353 (0.4%) had HA influenza. The overall adjusted rate of HA influenza was 0.4 per 100,000 persons. Among HA influenza cases, 50.7% were 65 years of age or older, and 52.0% of children and 95.7% of adults had underlying conditions; 44.9% overall had received influenza vaccine prior to hospitalization. Overall, 34.5% of HA cases received ICU care during hospitalization, 19.8% required mechanical ventilation, and 6.7% died. After including possible HA cases, prevalence among all influenza-associated hospitalizations increased to 1.3% and the adjusted rate increased to 1.5 per 100,000 persons.
Over 8 seasons, rates of HA influenza were low but were likely underestimated because testing was not systematic. A high proportion of patients with HA influenza were unvaccinated and had severe outcomes. Annual influenza vaccination and implementation of robust hospital infection control measures may help to prevent HA influenza and its impacts on patient outcomes and the healthcare system.
Ecclesiastical courts were rightly seen by nineteenth-century thinkers as a closed shop, a court system separate from the general court system which had its own proctors, advocates and judges. These courts had jurisdiction over the laity in a number of matters such as marriage, burial and probate of wills, though this changed during the century. The chapter describes the attempts at reform, and the difficulties with discipline of the laity as well as clergy that were addressed in the course of legislative change. Appeal lay with the secular courts and here too lay problems, where the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council served as the final court of appeal
The Conclusion looks at what has happened from the twentieth century onwards, with social change affecting the relationship between Parliament and the Church of England. It traces the history of increasing lay involvement in a society that is growing ever more multicultural and multifaith. The Church of England has entered actively into ecumenical dialogue and inter-church cooperation. The wording of the liturgy has been modernised. The Conclusion looks at a series of attempts, still in train, to make more satisfactory provision for clergy discipline. It reviews the changes in property law as it affects the Church of England and modern Faculty jurisdiction. Parliament now exercises only a light touch in the making of the Church’s legislation.
This chapter sets the social and ecclesiastical scene. It introduces the place of ecclesiastical law in the law of England. It explores the changing place of the Church of England in the life of the nation from the early nineteenth century, the role of the universities in educating future clergy and the significant place of the bishops in political as well as pastoral and spiritual leadership. It describes the need for more churches as the Industrial Revolution took a growing proportion of the population from the country into the towns. It introduces the challenge of the Dissenters with their rival chapels and the complexities of applying ecclesiastical law when there were controversies.
Nineteenth-century England had a large population of Christians who did not belong to the Church of England, and a proportion of Jews, though as yet almost no Muslims. The civic position of Jews had partly improved by this time. There was growing interest in the problems presented by what would now be thought of as ‘ecumenical relations’, with the first Lambeth Conferences giving the matter consideration, though excluding the Roman Catholics. This chapter explores the relationships between the main categories of non-Anglican Protestant Christians, including the ways in which they might be regarded as being part of the Church, that is, having an authentic ecclesial identity. The refusal of the Friends (Quakers) to take oaths was accommodated and the rights of Roman Catholics were thought through, with particular reference to Ireland. Dissenting academies were providing an excellent higher education. Problems were arising about the payment of clerical income and the costs of maintaining churches because non-Anglicans resented having to make a contribution.
This chapter discusses a series of high-profile cases in which significant disputes arose involving the application of ecclesiastical law. It begins with Parliament’s debates on its role and authority in this area as it attempted more than once to frame legislation for clergy discipline and the discussions in Convocation. It considers the Gompertz case, raising questions about the role of the bishop; the contrasting churchmanships of Evangelicals and Tractarians; and the controversy about biblical interpretation prompted by the publication of Essays and Reviews. The case of James Shore tested the law on the effect of a clergyman’s finding his opinions had changed to such an extent that he was no longer a member of the Church of England, while still effectively retaining his Anglican priesthood. The chapter also covers the cases of William Bennett and the ‘real presence’, and George Denison’s lengthy dispute with the Bishop of Exeter on the effect of baptism. It ends with the case of Alexander Mackonochie and controversy over the regulation of public worship.