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Civil War Settlers is the first comprehensive analysis of Scandinavian Americans and their participation in the US Civil War. Based on thousands of sources in multiple languages, that have to date been inaccessible to most US historians, Anders Bo Rasmussen brings the untold story of Scandinavian American immigrants to life by focusing on their lived community experience and positioning it within the larger context of western settler colonialism. Associating American citizenship with liberty and equality, Scandinavian immigrants openly opposed slavery and were among the most enthusiastic foreign-born supporters of the early Republican Party. However, the malleable concept of citizenship was used by immigrants to resist draft service, and support a white man's republic through territorial expansion on American Indian land and into the Caribbean. Consequently, Scandinavian immigrants after emancipation proved to be reactionary Republicans, not abolitionists. This unique approach to the Civil War sheds new light on how whiteness and access to territory formed an integral part of American immigration history.
Canon law touched nearly every aspect of medieval society, including many issues we now think of as purely secular. It regulated marriages, oaths, usury, sorcery, heresy, university life, penance, just war, court procedure, and Christian relations with religious minorities. Canon law also regulated the clergy and the Church, one of the most important institutions in the Middle Ages. This Cambridge History offers a comprehensive survey of canon law, both chronologically and thematically. Written by an international team of scholars, it explores, in non-technical language, how it operated in the daily life of people and in the great political events of the time. The volume demonstrates that medieval canon law holds a unique position in the legal history of Europe. Indeed, the influence of medieval canon law, which was at the forefront of introducing and defining concepts such as 'equity,' 'rationality,' 'office,' and 'positive law,' has been enormous, long-lasting, and remarkably diverse.
Next Generation Lab turns large and hitherto unstudied urban assemblages of archaeological leather and bone into a laboratory learning experience for high school students. The students, in turn, provide species identifications and thus increase knowledge on medieval and Renaissance livestock exploitation and material selection by craftsmen.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). However, implementation of some of the procedures involved, particularly in vivo exposure, can be time consuming and taxing for routine health care services. CBT with exposure taking place in virtual reality (VR-CBT) is a more time-efficient option and has shown promising results in the treatment of PDA. However, VR-CBT requires expensive equipment and appropriate virtual environments, which historically has been costly and cumbersome to produce. Thus, access to VR-CBT has been sparse in regular care environments.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether VR-CBT using filmed virtual environments produced with a low-cost 360-degree film camera can be a feasible and acceptable treatment for PDA when implemented in a primary care context.
This was an open feasibility trial with a within-group design, with assessments conducted at pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up. Participants (n = 12) received a 10–12 week treatment programme of VR-CBT and PDA-related symptoms were assessed by the primary outcome measure The Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MIA) and the Panic-Disorder Severity Scale-Self Rated (PDSS-SR).
The results showed that treatment satisfaction was high and participants were significantly improved on PDA-related measures at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up with large effect sizes (Cohen’s d range = 1.46–2.82). All 12 participants completed the treatment.
These findings suggest that VR-CBT with 360-degree video virtual environments delivered to primary care patients with PDA is feasible, acceptable, and potentially efficacious.
A subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) undergoing involuntary treatment (IT) seems to account for most of the IT events. Little is known about these patients and their treatment including the temporal distribution of IT events and factors associated with subsequent utilization of IT. Hence, this study explores (1) utilization patterns of IT events, and (2) factors associated with subsequent utilization of IT in patients with AN.
In this nationwide Danish register-based retrospective exploratory cohort study patients were identified from their first (index) hospital admission with an AN diagnosis and followed up for 5 years. We explored data on IT events including estimated yearly and total 5-year rates, and factors associated with subsequent increased IT rates and restraint, using regression analyses and descriptive statistics.
IT utilization peaked in the initial few years starting at or following the index admission. A small percentage (1.0%) of patients accounted for 67% of all IT events. The most frequent measures reported were mechanical and physical restraint. Factors associated with subsequent increased IT utilization were female sex, lower age, previous admissions with psychiatric disorders before index admission, and IT related to those admissions. Factors associated with subsequent restraint were lower age, previous admissions with psychiatric disorders, and IT related to these.
High IT utilization in a small percentage of individuals with AN is concerning and can lead to adverse treatment experiences. Exploring alternative approaches to treatment that reduce the need for IT is an important focus for future research.