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To predict skull base osteomyelitis in patients with necrotising otitis externa using diffusion-weighted imaging.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of 25 necrotising otitis externa patients with skull base osteomyelitis (n = 10) or without skull base involvement (n = 14) who underwent a single-shot diffusion-weighted imaging of the skull base.
The respective mean apparent diffusion coefficient values of the skull base, as determined by two reviewers, were 0.851 ± 0.15 and 0.841 ± 0.14 ×10-3mm2/s for the skull base osteomyelitis patients, and 1.065 ± 0.19 and 1.045 ± 0.20 ×10-3mm2/s for the necrotising otitis externa patients without skull base involvement. The difference in apparent diffusion coefficients between the groups was significant, for both reviewers (p = 0.008 and 0.012). The optimal threshold apparent diffusion coefficient for predicting skull base osteomyelitis in necrotising otitis externa patients was 0.945 ×10-3mm2/s and 0.915 ×10-3mm2/s, with an area under the curve of 0.825 and 0.800, accuracy of 87.5 and 83.3 per cent, sensitivity of 85.7 and 90.0 per cent, and specificity of 90.0 and 78.6 per cent, for each reviewer respectively.
Apparent diffusion coefficient is a non-invasive imaging parameter useful for predicting skull base osteomyelitis in necrotising otitis externa patients.
To assess the reliability of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating recurrent cholesteatoma from granulation tissue after intact canal wall mastoidectomy.
A prospective study was conducted of 56 consecutive patients with suspected cholesteatoma recurrence after intact canal wall mastoidectomy who underwent diffusion-weighted imaging and delayed contrast magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone. The final diagnosis was recurrence in 38 patients and granulation tissue in 18 patients.
Cholesteatoma detection on diffusion-weighted imaging based on two sets of readings had sensitivity of 94.7 and 94.7 per cent, specificity of 94.4 and 88.9 per cent, and accuracy of 94.6 and 92.8 per cent, with good intra-observer agreement (Κ = 0.72, p = 0.001). Cholesteatoma detection on delayed contrast magnetic resonance imaging had sensitivity of 81.6 and 78.9 per cent, specificity of 77.8 and 66.7 per cent, and accuracy of 80.4 and 75.0 per cent, with fair intra-observer agreement (Κ = 0.57, p = 0.001). The mean cholesteatoma diameter on diffusion-weighted imaging was 7.7 ± 1.8 and 7.9 ± 1.8 mm, with excellent intra-observer agreement (Κ = 0.994, p = 0.001).
Diffusion-weighted imaging is a reliable method for differentiating recurrent cholesteatoma and granulation tissue after intact canal wall mastoidectomy.
To assess arterial spin labelling and diffusion-weighted imaging in the differentiation of recurrent head and neck cancer from post-radiation changes.
A retrospective study was conducted of 47 patients with head and neck cancer, treated with radiotherapy, who underwent magnetic resonance arterial spin labelling and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Tumour blood flow and apparent diffusion co-efficient of the lesion were calculated.
There was significant difference (p = 0.001) in tumour blood flow between patients with recurrent head and neck cancer (n = 31) (47.37 ± 16.3 ml/100 g/minute) and those with post-radiation changes (n = 16) (18.80 ± 2.9 ml/100 g/minute). The thresholds of tumour blood flow and apparent diffusion co-efficient used for differentiating recurrence from post-radiation changes were more than 24.0 ml/100 g/minute and 1.21 × 10−3 mm2/second or less, with area under the curve values of 0.94 and 0.90, and accuracy rates of 88.2 per cent and 88.2 per cent, respectively. The combined tumour blood flow and apparent diffusion co-efficient values used for differentiating recurrence from post-radiation changes had an area under the curve of 0.96 and an accuracy of 90.2 per cent.
Combined tumour blood flow and apparent diffusion co-efficient can differentiate recurrence from post-radiation changes.
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