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This article presents preliminary findings from a multi-year, multi-disciplinary text analysis project using an ancient and medieval Chinese corpus of over five million characters in works that date from the earliest received texts to the Song dynasty. It describes “distant reading” methods in the humanities and the authors’ corpus; introduces topic-modeling procedures; answers questions about the authors’ data; discusses complementary relationships between machine learning and human expertise; explains topics represented in Analects, Mencius, and Xunzi that set each of those texts apart from the other two; and explains topics that intersect all three texts. The authors’ results confirm many scholarly opinions derived from close-reading methods, suggest a reappraisal of Xunzi’s shared semantic content with Analects, and yield several actionable research questions for traditional scholarship. The aim of this article is to initiate a new conversation about implications of machine learning for the study of Asian texts.
Pseudobulbar affect/emotional incontinence is a potentially disabling condition characterized by expressions of affect or emotions out of context from the normal emotional basis for those expressions. This condition can result in diagnostic confusion and unrelieved suffering when clinicians interpret the emotional expressions at face value. In addition, the nomenclature, etiology, and treatment for this condition remain unclear in the medical literature.
We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis who was referred to an inpatient psychiatry unit with complaints of worsening depression along with hopelessness, characterized by unrelenting crying. Our investigation showed that her symptoms were caused by pseudobulbar affect/emotional incontinence stemming from multiple sclerosis.
The patient's history of multiple sclerosis and the fact that she identified herself as depressed only because of her incessant crying suggested that her symptoms might be due to the multiple sclerosis rather than to a depressive disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a new plaque consistent with multiple sclerosis lateral to her corpus callosum. Her symptoms resolved completely within three days on valproic acid but returned after she was cross-tapered to dextromethorphan plus quinidine, which is the FDA-approved treatment for this condition.
Significance of Results:
This case provides important additional information to the current literature on pseudobulbar affect/emotional incontinence. The existing literature suggests a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and dextromethorphan/quinidine (Nuedexta) as first-line treatments; however, our patient was taking an SSRI at the time of presentation without appreciable benefit, and her symptoms responded to valproic acid but not to the dextromethorphan/quinidine. In addition, the case and the literature review suggest that the current nomenclature for this constellation of symptoms can be misleading.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Conservation agricultural systems rely on three principles to enhance ecosystem services: (1) minimizing soil disturbance, (2) maximizing soil surface cover and (3) stimulating biological activity. In this paper, we explore the concept of diversity and its role in maximizing ecosystem services from managed grasslands and integrated agricultural systems (i.e., integrated crop–livestock–forage systems) at the field and farm level. We also examine trade-offs that may be involved in realizing greater ecosystem services. Previous research on livestock production systems, particularly in pastureland, has shown improvements in herbage productivity and reduced weed invasion with increased forage diversity but little response in terms of animal production. Managing forage diversity in pastureland requires new tools to guide the selection and placement of plant mixtures across a farm according to site suitability and the goals of the producer. Integrated agricultural systems embrace the concept of dynamic cropping systems, which incorporates a long-term strategy of annual crop sequencing that optimizes crop and soil use options to attain production, economic and resource conservation goals by using sound ecological management principles. Integrating dynamic cropping systems with livestock production increases the complexity of management, but also creates synergies among system components that may improve resilience and sustainability while fulfilling multiple ecosystem functions. Diversified conservation agricultural systems can sustain crop and livestock production and provide additional ecosystem services such as soil C storage, efficient nutrient cycling and conservation of biodiversity.
Protonated niobate nanosheets, H1.8Bi0.2CaNaNb3O10 (BCNN), were synthesized using a new organic-free simultaneous ion exchange and exfoliation process from the Aurivillius phase Bi2CaNaNb3O12. Nanosheet/TiO2 composites were prepared by thermal treatment of physical mixtures of commercially available anatase TiO2 and the nanosheet suspension. Methylene blue (MB) dye degradation studies for the composite show a clear correlation between the MB surface adsorption and the degradation rate. The composite exhibits strongly enhanced photocatalytic activity as the calcination temperature increases, suggesting the possibility of charge transfer at the BCNN–TiO2 interface and the existence of Nb5+ and O2−acid–base pairs. Both phenomena are attributed to the processing approach, which includes topochemical dehydration of the BCNN nanosheets during heat treatment.
The main objectives of our study were to explore reasons for seasonal influenza vaccine acceptance and declination in employees of a large integrated healthcare system and to identify underlying constructs that influence acceptance versus declination. Secondary objectives were to determine whether vaccine acceptance varied by hospital location and to identify facility-level measures that explained variability.
A national health promotion survey of employees was conducted that included items on vaccination in the 2009-2010 influenza season. The survey was administered with two other institutional surveys in a stratified fashion: approximately 40% of participating employees were randomly assigned to complete the health promotion survey.
National single-payer healthcare system with 152 hospitals.
Employees of the healthcare system in 2010 who responded to the survey.
Factor analysis was used to identify underlying constructs that influenced vaccine acceptance versus declination. Mean factor scores were examined in relation to demographic characteristics and occupation. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to determine whether vaccine acceptance varied by location and to identify facility-level measures that explained variability.
Four factors were identified related to vaccine declination and were labeled as (1) “don't care,” (2) “don't want,” (3) “don't believe,” and (4) “don't know.” Significant differences in mean factor scores existed by demographic characteristics and occupation. Vaccine acceptance varied by location, and vaccination rates in the previous year were an important facility-level predictor.
Results should guide interventions that tailor messages on the basis of particular reasons for declination. Occupation-specific and culturally appropriate messaging should be considered. Continued efforts will be taken to better understand how workplace context influences vaccine acceptance.
The ribosome is the location of protein translation and therefore a pivotal macromolecular complex for all organisms. The RNA molecules involved in the formation and functioning of the ribosome (rRNA) are partially single-stranded (loops) and partially double-stranded (helices or stems) as a result of pairing of complementary regions in either their own or other rRNA subunits. This pattern provides the rRNA with a secondary structure crucial for its functionality. The stability of these secondary structures is mediated by their base compositions: a helix rich in G-C pairs possesses a higher thermodynamic stability than an A-T rich counterpart. However, the base composition of these structures is neither homogeneous throughout the molecule nor throughout the demosponge taxa. Here, we present patterns of biased nucleotide composition in demosponge 28S rDNA. We analyse their correlation in respect to environment and taxonomy. We find significantly higher G+C contents in haplosclerid demosponges compared to other orders and investigate evidence for an association between water temperature and rRNA base composition in demosponges.
Recent phylogenetic analyses of demosponges have suggested that the order Poecilosclerida is monophyletic and nested within the paraphyletic ‘order’ Hadromerida. Until now, this result has rested upon very limited taxon sampling of SSU sequences and partial LSU sequences. We collected and analysed additional full-length SSU and LSU sequences to test the validity and position of the poecilosclerid/hadromerid clade within demosponges, and we sampled a short segment of the LSU from diverse hadromerids to explore the internal relationships of Hadromerida. Our data strongly support the existence of a hadromerid/poecilosclerid clade that is sister to a poorly characterized group of halichondrid and agelasid species (‘Clade C’). We find support for the monophyly of the hadromerid families Polymastiidae, Placospongiidae and Timeidae, and conditional support for the family Suberitidae. Furthermore, both LSU and SSU data support a clade that includes a mixture of species assigned to the families Tethyidae and Hemiasterellidae (TETH/HEM) and a mixed clade including members of the families Clionaidae and Spirastrellidae (CLIO/SPIR). The family Placospongiidae is reconstructed as sister to the clade CLIO/SPIR and the family Timeidae is supported as sister to the clade TETH/HEM. The order Poecilosclerida is most closely allied with the Placospongiidae/CLIO/SPIR clade.
The spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are being used to construct a catalogue of QSO absorption lines, for use in studies of abundances, relevant radiation fields, number counts as a function of redshift, and other matters, including the evolution of these parameters. The catalogue includes intervening, associated, and BAL absorbers, in order to allow a clearer definition of the relationships between these three classes. We describe the motivation for and the data products of the project to build the SDSS QSO absorption line catalogue.
Titanium nitride films were prepared by reactive ion beam assisted deposition (RIBAD) with Ar+/Ti ratios ranging from 1.0 to 2.3. The compositions, phases and textures of these films were studied by AES and XRD as a function of Ar+/Ti ratio and nitrogen partial pressure. The results indicate that the IBAD titanium nitride films deposited at high Ar+/Ti ratio and low nitrogen partial pressure may have reduced nitrogen concentration, (200) preferred orientation, and possibly contain the Ti2N phase.
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