Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-mhx7p Total loading time: 0.427 Render date: 2022-05-17T02:28:51.868Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Review of the chemistry, metabolism, and dose response of two supplemental methionine sources and the implications in their relative bioefficacy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 October 2017

M. VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN*
Affiliation:
Novus International, Inc, St Charles, USA
G. BERTIN
Affiliation:
International Methionine Analogue Association (IMAA asbl), Brussels, Belgium
Y. MERCIER
Affiliation:
Adisseo France SAS, Malicorne, France
G. REZNIK
Affiliation:
Novus International, Inc, St Charles, USA
J-L. ROBERTON
Affiliation:
Adisseo France SAS, Malicorne, France
*
Corresponding author: Mercedes.vazquez@novusint.com
Get access

Abstract

This review examines the relative bioefficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and DL-methionine (DL-Met) which includes chemical, metabolic, nutritional, and statistical aspects of its bioefficacy. The chemical, enzymatic and biological differences and similarities between these two products are explained and the evidence and reasons for HMTBA relative bioefficacy to DL-Met in monogastric animals are discussed. In addition, appropriate statistical methods for comparing the bioefficacy of these two products for successful use of each product are provided. HMTBA is an organic acid precursor of L-Met. The chemical structure differences between HMTBA and DL-Met leads to differences in how and where the two materials are absorbed, enzymatically converted to L-Met and used by the animal. Because of these differences, when the two compounds are supplemented into animal feeds in graded doses, they do not produce dose response curves of the same form due in part to differences in intake and metabolism at the extremes of the dose response curves. At deficient levels of the response curve, HMTBA fed animals may exhibit lower feed consumption and growth than DL-Met while at requirement levels they may have greater feed consumption and growth. This review provides biological evidence for why these differences in growth response occur and demonstrates that lower growth, whether for DL-Met or HMTBA, does not mean that either product is being converted to methionine inefficiently. Since the two products have different dose response curves, statistically valid methods are provided for unbiased determination of relative bioefficacy across tested dose ranges. Field nutritionists typically feed commercial doses of HMTBA or DL-Met at a total sulphur amino acid dietary level capable of achieving maximum performance. At these commercial levels, and based on the evidence, the full relative bioefficacy of HMTBA relative to DL-Met is discussed.

Type
Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © World's Poultry Science Association 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

AGOSTINI, P., DALIBARD, P., MERCIER, Y., VAN DER AAR, P. and VAN DER KLIS, J.D. (2015a) Comparison of methionine sources around requirement levels using a methionine efficacy method in 0 to 28 day old broilers. Poultry Science 95: 560-569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
AGOSTINI, P., BUTTIN, P. and VAZQUEZ-AÑON, M. (2015b) The relative value of Methionine Hydroxy Analogue (HMTBA) compared to DL-methionine (DL-Met) at different methionine levels in commercial broiler diets from 0 to 38 days of age. 20th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition. August 24-27, 2015. Prague, Czech Republic. Page 223.Google Scholar
AGRI STATS, INC. (2004) Annual Feed Nutrient Profile Report. January to December 2004 ed. AgriStat, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN.Google Scholar
BLAIR, M.E. (1983) Methionine bioassays and methionine-choline sulfate relationships in practical-type diets for young turkeys. MS Thesis. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg.Google Scholar
BRUYER, D.C. and VANBELLE, M. (1990a) Efficaref compare pour la croissance du poussin de differentes sources de methionine . Annales de Zootechnie 39: 45-51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BRUYER, D.C. and VANBELLE, M. (1990b) Estimation of bioavailable methionine hydroxy analogue free acid dimer for poultry and pits. Publication # 57-1990 de l'Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Lauvain-la-Neuve.Google Scholar
DAENNER, E. and BESSEI, W. (2003) Influence of supplementation with liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (Alimet) or DL-methionine on performance of broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 12: 101105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DIBNER, J.J. and KNIGHT, C.D. (1984) Conversion of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid to L-methionine in the chick: A stereospecific pathway. Journal of Nutrition 114: 1716-1723.Google ScholarPubMed
DIBNER, J.J., ATWELL, C.A. and IVEY, F.J. (1992) Effect of heat stress on 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid and DL-methionine absorption measured in vitro . Poultry Science 71: 1900-1910.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DIBNER, J.J. (2003) Review of the metabolism of DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid. World's Poultry Science 59: 99-110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ENTHOVEN, P., VAN DEN HOVEN, S. and VAN DIJK, A. (2002) Antibacterial properties of 2-hydroxy-4(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB, Alimet). Eur. Ass. Of Anim. Prod Proc. (EEAP) Cairo.Google Scholar
FINNEY, D.J. (1978) Statistical methods in biological assay. (3rd Edition) Griffin, London.Google Scholar
GERAERT, P.-A., GRAULET, P., MERCIER, Y., BECKER, P.M. and VAN DER KLIS, J.D. (2005) The bactericidal effect of methionine hydroxyl analog. Australian Poultry Science Symposium 17.Google Scholar
GONZALEZ-ESQUERRA, R., VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, M., HAMPTON, T., YORK, T., FEINE, S., WUELLING, C. and KNIGHT, C.D. (2007) Evidence of a different dose response in turkeys when fed 2-hydroxy-4(methylthio) butanoic acid versus DL-methionine. Poultry Science 86: 517- 524.Google Scholar
HARMS, R.H. and RUSSELL, G.B. (1994) A comparison of the bioavailability of DL-methionine and methionine hydroxyl analogue acid for the commercial laying hen. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 3: 1-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
HOEHLER, D., LEMME, A., ROBERSON, K. and TURNER, K. (2005) Impact of methionine sources on performance in turkeys. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14: 296-305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
JANSMAN, A.J.M., KAN, C.A. and WIEBENGA, J. (2003) Comparison of the biological efficacy of DL-methionine and hydroxyl-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (HMB) in pigs and poultry. ID-Lelystad No. 2209.Google Scholar
KNIGHT, C.D., DIBNER, J.J., GONZALEZ-ESQUERRA, R. and VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, M. (2006) Differences in broiler growth rates when methionine (MET) sources are fed in deficiency or excess are equalised when feed consumption is equalised. Poultry Science 85 (Suppl. 1): P191 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
KNIGHT, C.D., WUELLING, C.W., ATWELL, C.A. and DIBNER, J.J. (1994) Effect of intermittent periods of high environmental temperature on broiler performance responses to sources of methionine activity. Poultry Science 73: 672-639.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
KNIGHT, C.D. and DIBNER, J.J. (1984) Comparative absorption of 2-hydroxy-4- (methylthio) butanoic acid and L-methionine in the broiler chick. Journal of Nutrition 114: 2179-2186.Google ScholarPubMed
KRATZER, D.D. and LITTELL, R.C. (2006) Appropriate analyses to compare dose responses of two methionine sources. Poultry Science 85: 947-954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LAWSON, C.Q. and IVEY, F.J. (1986) Hydroylysis of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid in two model systems. Poultry Science 65:1749-1753.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LITTELL, R.C., LEWIS, A.J. and HENRY, P.R. (1995) Statistical evaluation of bioavailability assays, in: Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals, Amino Acids, Minerals, and Vitamins. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1995.Google Scholar
LOBLEY, G.E., WESTER, T.A., CALDER, A.J., PARKER, D.S., DIBNER, J.J. and VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, M. (2006) Absorption of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butyrate (HMTBA) and conversion to met in lambs. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 1072-1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LIU, Z., BATEMAN, A., BRYANT, M.M., ZINNER, B. and ROLAND, D.A. (Sr) (2005) Performance comparisons between DL-methionine and DL-methionine hydroxy analogue in layers on an unequal molar basis. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14: 569-575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LIU, Z., BATEMAN, A., BRYANT, M., ABEBE, A. and ROLAND, D. (2004) Estimation of Bioavailability of DL-Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Relative to DL-Methionine in Layers with Exponential and Slope-Ratio Models. Poultry Science 83: 1580-1586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MCCOLLUM, M., VAZQUEZ-ANON, M., DIBNER, J.J. and WEBB, K.E. (2000) Absorption of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid by isolated sheep ruminal and omasal epithelia . Journal of Animal Science 78: 1078-1083.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MARTIN-VENEGAS, R., SORIANO-GARCIA, J.F., VINARDELL, M.P., GERAERT, P.A. and FERRER, R. (2006) Oligomers are not the limiting factor in the absorption of DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid in the chicken small intestine. Poultry Science 85: 56-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MARTIN-VENEGAS, R., RODRIGUEZ-LAGUNAS, M.J., GERART, P.A. and FERRER, R. (2007) DL- 2-hydroxy-4(methylthio) butanoic acid absorption across the apical membrane in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Journal of Nutrition 137: 49-54.Google ScholarPubMed
MARTIN-VENEGAS, R., BRUFAU, M.T., GUERRERO-ZAMORA, A.M., MERCIER, Y., GERAERT, P.A. and FERRER, R. (2013) The methionine precursor DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio) butanoic acid protects intestinal epithelial barrier function. Food Chemistry 141 (3): 1702-1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MONTANHINI NETO, R., CECCANTINI, M. and FERNANDES, J.I.M. (2013) Effects of methionine source, arginine:lysine ratio and sodium chloride level in the diets of grower broilers reared under high-temperature conditions. Brasilian Journal of Poultry Nutrition 15 (2): 151-160.Google Scholar
MOTL, M.A., FRITTS, C.A. and WALDROUP, P.W. (2005) Influence of dietary sodium level on utilisation of methionine from DL-Methionine and liquid methionine-hydroxy analogue. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14: 147-155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NOLL, S.L., WAIBEL, P.E., COOK, R.D. and WITMER, J.A. (1984) Biopotency of methionine sources for young turkeys. Poultry Science 63: 2458-2470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
REID, B.L., MADRID, A. and MAIORINO, P.M. (1982) Metabolism and nutrition-relative biopotency of three methionine sources for laying hens. Poultry Science 61: 726-730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
RICHARDS, J.R., ATWELL, C.A., VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, M. and DIBNER, J.J. (2005) Comparative in vitro and in vivo absorption of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid and DLmethionine in the broiler chicken. Poultry Science 84: 1397-1405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SAUER, N., EMRICH, K., PIEPHO, H.P., LEMME, A., REDSHAW, M.S. and MOSENTHIN, R. (2008) Meta-analysis of the relative efficiency of methionine-hydroxy-analogue-free-acid compared with DL-methionine in broilers using nonlinear mixed models. Poultry Science 87: 2023-2031.Google ScholarPubMed
SWENNEN, Q., GERAERT, P.A., MERCIER, Y., EVERAERT, N., STINCKENS, A., WILLEMSEN, H., LI, Y., DECUYPERE, E. and BUYSE, J. (2011) Effects of dietary protein content of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid or DL methionine supplementation on performance and oxidative status of broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition 106: 1845-1854.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
SCHUTTE, J.B. and DE JONG, J. (1996) Biological efficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid compared to DL-methionine in broiler chicks as determined by performance and breast meat yield. Agribiological Research 49: 74-82.Google Scholar
SCOTT, M.L. and SHURMAN, J.G. (1987) Studies on the comparative utilisation of synthetic sources of methionine activity in laying pullets. Nutrition Reports International 36: 1043-1052.Google Scholar
SUGAHARA, K. and KUBO, T. (1992) Involvement of food intake in the decreased energy retention associated with single deficiencies of lysine and sulphur-containing amino acids in growing chicks . British Poultry Science 33: 805-814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
VAN WEERDEN, E.J., SCHUTTE, J.B. and BERTRAM, H.L. (1984) Comparison of DL-methionine, DL-methionine-Na, DL-methionine hydroxyl analogue-Ca, and DL-methionine hydroxyl analogue-free acid with layers. Poultry Science 63: 1793-1799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, M., WEHMEYER, M., WUELLING, C.W., HAMPTON, T., KNIGHT, C.D. and DIBNER, J.J. (2003) Differential response to 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid and DL-methionine above requirement on broilers and pig performance and iron metabolism. Pages 725-729 in Progress in Research on Energy and Protein Metabolism. EAAP publication No 109. Rostock-Warnemunde, Germany.Google Scholar
VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, M., KRATZER, D., GONZALEZ-ESQUERRA, R., YI, I.G. and KNIGHT, C.D. (2006a) A multiple regression model approach to contrast the performance of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid and DL-methionine supplementation tested in broiler trials that are reported in the literature. Poultry Science 85: 693-705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, M., GONZALEZ-ESQUERRA, R., SALEH, E., HAMPTON, T., RICTHER, S., FIRMAN, J. and KNIGHT, C.D. (2006b) Evidence for 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid and DL-methionine having a different dose-response in growing broilers. Poultry Science 85: 1409-1420.Google ScholarPubMed
VEDENOV, D. and PESTI, G.M. (2010) An economic analysis of a methionine source comparison response model. Poultry Science 89: 2514-2520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
WESTER, T.J., VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, M., DIBNER, J.J., PARKER, D.S., CALDER, A.J. and LOBLEY, G.E. (2006) Hepatic metabolism of 2-hydroxy-4-thiomethylbutyrate (HMTBA) in growing lambs. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 1062-1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
WILLEMSEN, H., SWENNEN, Q., EVERAERT, N., GERAERT, P.-A., MERCIER, Y., STINCKENS, A., DECUYPERE, E. and BUYSE, J. (2011) Effects of dietary supplementation of methionine and its hydroxy analog DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid on growth performance, plasma hormone levels, and the redox status of broiler chickens exposed to high temperatures. Poultry Science 90: 2311-2320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ZOU, L., WANG, D., LIU, J., BAI, Y., LIANG, Z. and ZHANG, T. (2015) Effects of DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid on broilers at different dietary inclusion rates. British Poultry Science 56: 337-344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
ZHANG, S., WONG, E.A. and GILBERT, E.R. (2015) Bioavailability of different dietary supplemental methionine sources in animals. Frontiers in Bioscience Elite 7: 478-490.Google ScholarPubMed

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Review of the chemistry, metabolism, and dose response of two supplemental methionine sources and the implications in their relative bioefficacy
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Review of the chemistry, metabolism, and dose response of two supplemental methionine sources and the implications in their relative bioefficacy
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Review of the chemistry, metabolism, and dose response of two supplemental methionine sources and the implications in their relative bioefficacy
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *