Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-q7wkk Total loading time: 0.348 Render date: 2022-06-28T18:15:25.105Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Poultry and coloured light

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2007

P.D. Lewis
Affiliation:
Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading, Berkshire RG6 2AT, UK
T.R. Morris
Affiliation:
Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading, Berkshire RG6 2AT, UK
Get access

Abstract

Poultry have four types of cone in the retina of the eye, and this means that they probably see colour differently from trichromatic humans. Notwith- standing the fact that humans and birds have maximum sensitivity in a similar part of the spectrum (545–575nm), poultry are likely to perceive light from various types of lamp at a different intensity from humans because they are more sensitive to the blue and red parts of the spectrum. Although colour has been confounded with illuminance in many trials, wavelength has an unquestionable effect on poultry production and behaviour. Growth and behaviour responses depend principally on retinal photoreception, whereas photosexual responses are mainly influenced by hypothalamic light reception. In turkeys and chickens growth under red illumination is inferior to that under blue or green light, and this may be a result of birds exposed to red light being more active and showing more aggression than birds exposed to shorter wavelength radiation. In contrast, the easier penetration of longer wavelength radiation to the hypothalamus makes red light more sexually stimulatory than blue or green, although the hypothalamic photo- receptors are more sensitive to blue/green light when illuminated directly. Egg production traits, however, appear to be minimally affected by wavelength.

Type
Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2000

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Antonini, E. and Brunori, M. (1971) Haemoglobin and myoglobin in their reactions with ligands. In: Frontiers of Biology (Neuberger, A. and Tatum, E.L., Eds), Volume 21, North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 1354Google Scholar
Benoit, J. (1935) Role des yeux dans l'action stimulante de la lumiere, sur le developpement testiculaire chez le canard. Chronicles of Royal Society of Biology 118: 669671Google Scholar
Benoit, J. (1964) The role of the eye and of the hypothalamus in the photostimulation of gonads in the duck. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 117: 204215CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benoit, J. and Assenmacher, I. (1953) Action des facteurs externes et plus particuli6rement du facteur lumineux sur l'activité sexualle des oiseaux. In: Rapport à la lième Réunion des Endocrinologistes de Langue Francaise. Masson, Paris, pp. 3380Google Scholar
Benoit, J., Walter, F.X. and Assenmacher, I. (1950a) Nouvelles recherches relatives è I'action de lumières de différentes longeurs d'onde sur la gonadostimulation du canard male impubère. Chronicles of the Royal Society of Biology 144: 1206Google Scholar
Benoit, J., Walter, F.X. and Assenmacher, I. (1950b) Contribution à l'étude du réflexe optohypophysaire. Gonadostimulation chez le canard soumis à des radiations lumineuses de diverses longueurs d'onde. Journal of Physiology 42: 537541Google Scholar
Bowmaker, J.K., Heath, L.A., Wilkie, S.E. and Hunt, D.M. (1997) Visual pigments and oil droplets from six classes of photoreceptor in the retinas of birds. Vision Research 37: 21832194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brainard, G.C., Richardson, B.A., King, T.S. and Reiter, R.I. (1984) The influence of different light spectra on the suppression of pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. Brain Research 294: 333341CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carson, J.R., Junnila, W.A. and Bacon, B.F. (1958) Sexual maturity and productivity in the chicken as affected by the quality of illumination during the growing period. Poultry Science 37: 102112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casey, J.M., Harrison, P.C., Latshaw, J.D. and McGinnis, J. (1969) Effects of photoperiod and colored lights on the sexual maturity of domestic fowl. Poultry Science 48: 1794 (abstract)Google Scholar
Cave, N.A. (1990) Effects of feeding level during pullet-layer transition and of pretransition lighting on performance of broiler breeders. Poultry Science 69: 11411146CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charles, R.G., Robinson, F.E., Hardin, R.T., Yu, M.W., Feddes, J. and Classen, H.L. (1992) Growth, body composition, and plasma androgen concentration of male broiler chickens subjected to different regimens of photoperiod and light intensity. Poultry Science 71: 15951605CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cherry, P. and Barwick, M.W. (1962) The effect of light on broiler growth. I. Light intensity and colour. British Poultry Science 3: 3139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CIE (1983) The Basis of Physical Photometry. Technical report 18.2. Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage, Vienna, pp. 137Google Scholar
Foss, D.C. and White, J.L. (1983) Early sexual maturity of brown-egg pullets cage-grown in narrow-band light with high nutrient density diets. Poultry Science 62: 1424 (abstract)Google Scholar
Foss, D.C., Donovan, G.A. and Arnold, E.L. (1967) The influence of narrow bands of light energy on growth, testis weight, pituitary weight and gonadotrophin production of male chickens. Poultry Science 46: 1258 (abstract)Google Scholar
Foss, D.C., Carew, L.B. Jnr. and Arnold, E.L. (1972) Physiological development of cockerels as influenced by selected wavelengths of environmental light. Poultry Science 51: 19221927CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foster, R.G. and Follett, B.K. (1985) The involvement of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in the photoperiodic response of the Japanese quail. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 157: 519528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, D.J. and Leighton, A.T. Jr (1984) Effect of light environment and population density on growth performance of male turkeys. Poultry Science 63: 13141321CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gill, D.J. and Leighton, A.T. Jr (1988) Effects of light environment and population density on growth performance of male turkeys: physiological changes. Poultry Science 67: 15181524CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Govardovskii, V.I. and Zueva, L.V. (1977) Visual pigments of chicken and pigeon. Vision Research 17: 537543CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrison, P., McGinnis, J., Schmaier, G. and Lauber, J. (1969) Sexual maturity and subsequent reproductive performance of white leghorn chickens subjected to different parts of the light spectrum. Poultry Science 48: 878883CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrison, P.C., Lathsaw, J.D., Casey, J.M. and McGinnis, J. (1970) Influence of decreased length of different spectral photoperiods on testis development of domestic fowl. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 22: 269275CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, N.S., Partridge, J.C. and Cuthill, I.C. (1999) Visual pigments, cone oil droplets, ocular media and predicted spectral sensitivity in the domestic turkey (Meliagris gallopavo). Vision Research 39: 33213328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartwig, H.G. and van Veen, T. (1979) Spectral characteristics of visible radiation penetrating into the brain and stimulating extraretinal photoreceptors. Journal of Comparative Physiology 130: 277282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Homma, K., Ohta, M. and Sakakibara, Y. (1980) Surface and deep photoreceptors in photoperiodism in birds. In: Biological Rhythms in Birds: Neurul and Endocrine Aspects (Tanabe, Y., Tanaka, K. and Ookawa, T., Eds), Japan Scientific SocietiesPress, Tokyo/Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 149156Google Scholar
Honigmann, H. (1921) Untersuchungen uber lichtempfindichkeit und adaptierung des voge-lauges. Pflügers Archio ges. Physiologie 189: 172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, A.L., Foss, D.C. and Carew, L.B. (1982) Effect of selected light treatments on pineal weight and lipid content in the cockerel (Gallus domesticus). Poultry Science 61: 128134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, T.E., Hughes, B.L., Thurston, R.T., Hess, R.A. and Froman, D.P. (1982) The effect of red and white light during the prebreeder and breeder periods on egg production and feed consumption in Large White turkeys. Poultry Science 61: 19301932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kondra, P.A. (1961) The effect of colored light on growth and feed efficiency of chicks and poults. Poultry Science 40: 268269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levenick, C.K. and Leighton, A.T. Jr. (1988) Effects of photoperiod and filtered light on growth, reproduction and behaviour of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). 1. Growth performance of two lines of males and females. Poultry Science 67: 15051513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, P.D. and Morris, T.R. (1999) Light intensity and performance in domestic pullets. World's Poultry Science Jonrnal 55: 241250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, P.D., Perry, G.C. and Morris, T.R. (1997) Effect of size and timing of photoperiod increase on age at first egg and subsequent performance on two breeds of laying hen. British Poultry Science 38: 142150CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, P.D., Perry, G.C. and Sherwin, C.M. (1998) Effect of photoperiod and light intensity on the performance of intact male turkeys. Animal Science 66: 759767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, P.D., Morris, T.R. and Perry, G.C. (1999) Light intensity and age at first egg in pullets. Poultry Science 78: 12271231CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mason, H.S., Ingram, D.J.E. and Allen, B. (1960) The free radical property of melanins. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 86: 225230CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monteith, J.L. (1973) The radiation environment. In: Principles of Environmental Physics. Edward Arnold, London, pp. 2338Google Scholar
Morris, T.R. (1967). Light requirements of the fowl. In: Environmental Control in Poultry Production (Carter, T.C., Ed), Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, pp. 1539Google Scholar
Nuboer, J.F.W. (1993) Visual ecology in poultry houses. In: Fourth European Symposium on Poultry Welfare (Savory, C.J. and Hughes, B.O., Eds), UFAW, Potters Bar, pp. 3944Google Scholar
Nuboer, J.F.W., Coemans, M.A.J.M. and Vos, J.J. (1992) Artificial lighting in poultry houses: are photometric units appropriate for describing illumination intensities? British Poultry Science 33: 135140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osol, J.G., Foss, D.C. and Carew, L.B. (1980) Effects of light environment and pinealectomy on growth and thyroid function in broiler cockerel. Poultry Science 59: 647653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
PHILIPS LIGHTING (1988a) Correspondence Course Lighting Application, No 3, Light and Radiation. Philips Lighting B.V., The Netherlands, pp. 334Google Scholar
PHILIPS LIGHTING (1988b) Correspondence Course Lighting Application, No 4, Vision. Philips Lighting B.V., The Netherlands, pp. 326Google Scholar
Prayitno, D.S. and Phillips, C.J.C. (1997) Equating the perceived intensity of coloured lights to hens. British Poultry Science 38: 136141CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prayitno, D.S., Phillips, C.J.C. and Omed, H. (1997a) The effects of color of lighting on the behaviour and production of meat chickens. Poultry Science 76: 452457CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prayitno, D.S., Phillips, C.J.C. and Stokes, D.K. (1997b) The effects of color and intensity lighting on behavior and leg disorders in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 76: 16741681CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prescott, N.B. and Wathes, C.M. (1999) Spectral sensitivity of the domestic fowl. British Poultry Science 40: 332339CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pritchard, D.C. (1995) The language of light. In: Lighting. Longman, Harlow, pp. 114Google Scholar
Proudfoot, F.G. and Hulan, H.W. (1987) Interrelationships among lighting, ambient tem- perature, dietary energy and broiler chicken performance. Poultry Science 66: 17441749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Proudfoot, F.G. and Sefton, A.E. (1978) Feed texture and light treatment effects on the performance of chicken broilers. Poultry Science 57: 408416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrzak, R. and Siopes, T.D. (1986a) Effect of light quality on egg production of caged turkey hens. Poultry Science 65: 199200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrzak, R. and Siopes, T.D. (1986b) The effect of light color on egg quality of turkey hens in cages. Poultry Science 65: 12621267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrzak, R., Snapir, N., Goodman, G. and Perek, M. (1984) The influence of light quality on egg production and egg quality of the domestic hen. Poultry Science 63(Supplement): 30Google Scholar
Pyrzak, R., Snapir, N., Goodman, G., Arnon, E. and Perek, M. (1986) The influence of light quality on initiation of egg laying by hens. Poultry Science 65: 190193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rozenboim, I., Biran, I., Uni, Z., Robinzon, B. and Halevy, O. (1999) The effect of monochromatic light on broilers growth and development. Poultry Science 78: 135138CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schumaier, G., Harrison, P.C. and McGinnis, J. (1968) Effect of colored fluorescent light on growth, cannibalism and subsequent egg production-of single comb white leghorn pullets. Poultry Science 47: 15991602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, H.M. and Payne, L.F. (1937) Light in relation to the experimental modification of the breeding season of turkeys. Poultry Science 16: 9096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, R.P. and Siopes, T.D. (1994) Light color: effect on blood cells, immune function and stress status in turkey hens. Comparative Biochemical Physiology 108A: 161168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherwin, C.M. (1999) Domestic turkeys are not averse to compact fluorescent lighting. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64: 4755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skwarlo-Sonta, K., Thaela, M.J., Midura, M., Lech, B., Gluchowska, B., Drela, N., Kozlowska, E. and Kowalczska, R. (1992) Exogenous melatonin modifies the circadian rhythm but does not increase the level of some immune parameters in the chicken. Journal of Pineal Research 12: 2734Google Scholar
Smith, L.T. and Phillips, R.E. (1959) Influence of colored neon lights on feed consumption in poults. Poultry Science 38: 1248 (abstract)Google Scholar
Underwood, H. and Menaker, M. (1970). Photoperiodically significant photoreception in sparrows: Is the retina involved? Science 167: 298301CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wabeck, C.J. and Skoglund, W.C. (1974) Influence of radiant energy from fluorescent light sources on growth, mortality and feed conversion of broilers. Poultry Science 53: 20552059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wathes, C.M., Spechter, H.H. and Bray, T.S. (1982) The effects of light illuminance and wavelength on the growth of broiler chickens. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 98: 195201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wells, R.G. (1971) A comparison of red and white light and high and low dietary protein regimes for growing pullets. British Poultry Science 12: 313325CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widowski, T.M., Keeling, L.J. and Duncan, I.J.H. (1992) The preferences of hens for compact fluorescent over incandescent lighting. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 72: 203211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodard, A.E., Moore, J.A. and Wilson, W.O. (1969) Effect of wave length of light on growth and reproduction in Japanese quail. Poultry Science 48: 118123CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wortel, J.F., Rugenbrink, H. and Nuboer, J.F.W. (1987) The photopic spectral sensitivity of the dorsal and ventral retinae of the chicken. Journal of Comparative Physiology A160: 151154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yahav, S., Hurwitz, S. and Rozenboim, R. (2000) The effect of light intensity on growth and development of turkey toms. British Poultry Science 41: 101106CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yoshizawa, T. (1992) The road to colour vision: structure, evolution and function of chicken and gecko visual pigments. Photochemistry and Photobiology 56: 859867CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Poultry and coloured light
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Poultry and coloured light
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Poultry and coloured light
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *