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Preemergence Control of Silvery Threadmoss (Bryum argenteum) Grown from Spores and Bulbils in Axenic Culture

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Angela R. Post
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061
David S. McCall
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061
Shawn D. Askew
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Silvery threadmoss naturally reproduces through spore and bulbil production, both of which have potential to be controlled prior to establishment. Studies have not evaluated effects of turf protection products on moss protonema or gametophyte growth from spores or bulbils; consequently, most moss is controlled POST on putting greens. Initial studies were performed to determine the optimal growth temperature for spores and bulbils in sterile culture. Protonemata from spores grew optimally at 29.5 C and gametophytes from bulbils grew optimally at 22.5 C. Three subsequent in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate effects of turf protection products on moss development from spores or bulbils in axenic culture at a constant 24 C. Carfentrazone, which effectively controls mature silvery threadmoss gametophytes POST, also reduced green cover of moss protonemata and gametophyte production from spores and bulbils. All combinations with carfentrazone reduced area under the progress curve (AUPC) for green cover of moss for both spores and bulbils by 80% or more by 3 wk after treatment. Sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon, saflufenacil, flumioxazin, and pyraflufen-ethyl reduced AUPC of moss equivalent to carfentrazone for both propagule types. The two fosetyl-Al products, phosphite, and mineral oil caused an increase in silvery threadmoss cover between 22 and 113% of the nontreated for spores; however, only methiozolin positively influenced AUPC (90.2%) compared to the nontreated for bulbils. Though silvery threadmoss is typically targeted POST on putting greens, there are products that can provide PRE control, including the industry standard of carfentrazone. These data suggest that differences may occur between turf protection products in their ability to suppress silvery threadmoss establishment from spores or bulbils.

Bryum argenteum es un musgo que se reproduce naturalmente mediante esporas y pequeños bulbos, y para ambos hay potencial de control antes del establecimiento. No hay estudios que hayan evaluado los efectos de productos de protección para céspedes sobre el crecimiento del musgo en estados de protonema y gametofítico a partir de esporas o bulbos. Consecuentemente, la mayoría de los musgos son controlados POST en putting greens. Estudios iniciales fueron realizados para determinar la temperatura para el crecimiento óptimo de esporas y bulbos en un medio estéril. Se creció protonema a partir de esporas óptimamente a 29.5 C y gametofitos a partir de bulbos a 22.5 C. Luego se realizaron tres estudios in vitro para evaluar los efectos de productos de protección para céspedes sobre el desarrollo del musgo en un cultivo axénico a una temperatura constante de 24 C. Carfentrazone, el cual controla efectivamente gametofitos maduros de B. argenteum en aplicaciones POST, también redujo la cobertura verde de protonometa del musgo y la producción de gametofitos a partir de esporas y bulbos. Todas las combinaciones con carfentrazone redujeron el área bajo la curva de progreso (AUPC) de la cobertura verde del musgo tanto para esporas como para bulbos en 80% o más a 3 semanas después del tratamiento. Sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon, saflufenacil, flumioxazin, y pyraflufen-ethyl redujeron AUPC del musgo a niveles equivalentes a carfentrazone para ambos tipos de propágulo. Los dos productos de fosetyl-Al, phosphite, y aceite mineral causaron un incremento en la cobertura del musgo entre 22 y 113% con comparación al testigo sin tratamiento para esporas. Sin embargo, solamente methiozolin influenció positivamente AUPC (90.2%) al compararlo con el testigo sin tratamiento en el caso de los bulbos. Aunque B. argenteum es típicamente controlado POST en putting greens, hay productos que pueden brindar control PRE, incluyendo el estándar de la industria, carfentrazone. Estos datos sugieren que diferencias pueden ocurrir entre productos de protección para césped con respecto a su habilidad para suprimir el establecimiento del musgo B. argenteum a partir de esporas o bulbos.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

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Footnotes

Associate Editor for this paper: James Brosnan, University of Tennessee.

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