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Herbicide-resistant weeds in the Canadian prairies: 2012 to 2017

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 December 2019

Hugh J. Beckie
Affiliation:
Weed Scientist, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; current: Professor, School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
Scott W. Shirriff
Affiliation:
Research Assistant (retired), AAFC, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Julia Y. Leeson*
Affiliation:
Biologist, AAFC, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Linda M. Hall
Affiliation:
Professor Emeritus, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
K. Neil Harker
Affiliation:
Weed Scientist (retired), AAFC, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada
Faye Dokken-Bouchard
Affiliation:
Past Director, Crop Protection Laboratory, Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
Clark A. Brenzil
Affiliation:
Weed Specialist, Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
*
Author for correspondence: Julia Y. Leeson, Saskatoon Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 0X2, Canada. (Email: julia.leeson@canada.ca)

Abstract

This report updates the incidence of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds across western Canada from the last report covering 2007 to 2011. This third round of preharvest surveys was conducted in Saskatchewan in 2014 and 2015, Manitoba in 2016, and Alberta in 2017, totaling 798 randomly selected cropped fields across 28 million ha. In addition, we screened 1,108 weed seed samples submitted by prairie growers or industry between 2012 and 2016. Of 578 fields where wild oat seed was collected, 398 (69%) had an HR biotype: 62% acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor (WSSA Group 1) resistant, 34% acetolactate synthase inhibitor (Group 2) resistant, and 27% Group 1+2 resistant (vs. 41%, 12%, and 8%, respectively, in the previous second-round surveys from 2007 to 2009). The sharp increase in Group 2 resistance is the result of reliance on this site of action to manage Group 1 resistance and the resultant increased selection pressure. There are no POST options to control Group 1+2–HR wild oat in wheat or barley. The rise of Group 2 resistance in green foxtail (11% of sampled fields) and yellow foxtail (17% of Manitoba fields), which was not detected in the previous survey round, parallels the results for wild oat resistance. Various Group 2–HR populations of broadleaf weeds were confirmed, with cleavers and field pennycress being most abundant. Results of submission-sample testing reflected survey results. Although not included in this study, a postharvest survey in Alberta in 2017 indicated widespread Groups 2, 4 (dicamba), and 9 (glyphosate) resistance in kochia and Group 2 resistance in Russian thistle. These surveys bring greater awareness of HR weeds to growers and land managers at local and regional levels, and highlight the urgency to preserve herbicide susceptibility in our key economic weed species.

Type
Education/Extension
Copyright
© Weed Science Society of America, 2019

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Footnotes

Associate Editor: Amit Jhala, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

References

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