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Effects of Landscape Position, Rainfall, and Tillage on Residual Herbicides

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

James R. Moyer
Affiliation:
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, 5403 1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1
Gerald Coen
Affiliation:
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, 5403 1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1
Robert Dunn
Affiliation:
Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, 5401 1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6
Anne M. Smith
Affiliation:
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, 5403 1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

The effect of soil properties and weather on herbicide persistence and injury to following crops were studied at a site near Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, with undulating topography that included no-tillage and conventional tillage systems on adjacent fields. Soil pH ranged from 5.2 (lower slope no-tillage) to 7.8 (upper slope conventional tillage) and soil organic matter content ranged from 2.3% (upper slope conventional tillage) to 4.4% (lower slope no-tillage). During the years when the experiments were conducted rainfall ranged from < 50% of normal to > 150% of normal. During dry years atrazine and metsulfuron severely injured wheat and lentil crops, seeded 1 yr after herbicide application, on upper slope locations. The most severe injury occurred on the upper slope conventional tillage location. In years with high rainfall, no crop injury occurred 1 yr after atrazine and metsulfuron application on either upper or lower slope locations in both tillage systems. Imazamox plus imazethapyr caused almost 100% injury in the lower slope position in the no-tillage system (pH 5.2) in the driest year. Following-crop injury due to the imidazolinone herbicides decreased with increasing rainfall and increasing soil pH. The most severe injury to following crops seemed to occur when herbicide dissipation was dependent on microbial activity and rainfall was below normal.

El efecto de las propiedades del suelo y el clima en la persistencia del herbicida y el daño en cultivos subsecuentes se estudió en un sitio cercano a Lethbridge, Alberta con topografía ondulante que incluyó sistemas de cero labranza y labranza convencional a campos adyacentes. El pH del suelo varió de 5.2 (en la parte inferior de la ladera sin labranza) a 7.8 (en la parte superior de la ladera con labranza convencional) y el contenido de materia orgánica del suelo varió del 2.3% (parte superior de la ladera con labranza convencional) a 4.4% (parte inferior sin labranza). Durante los años que los experimentos se llevaron al cabo, la precipitación varió entre < 50% de la normal hasta > 150% de la normal. Durante los años de sequía el atrazine y metsulfuron dañaron severamente el trigo y el cultivo de lenteja sembrada un año después de la aplicación del herbicida en los sitios localizados en la parte superior. El mayor daño ocurrió en los sitios ubicados en la parte de más arriba de la ladera con labranza convencional. En los años con mayor precipitación no se dañó el cultivo un año después de que se aplicó atrazine y metsulfuron ni en sitios inferiores ni superiores, en ambos sistemas de labranza. El Imazamox más imazethapyr causaron casi 100% de daño en la posición de más abajo en el sistema de cero labranza (pH 5.2) en el año más seco. El daño atribuible a los herbicidas con imidazolinone en el cultivo subsecuente disminuyó con el incremento de las lluvias y del pH del suelo. El mayor daño a los cultivos subsecuentes ocurrió cuando la disipación del herbicida, dependió de la actividad microbial y la precipitación fue más baja de lo normal.

Type
Weed Management—Other Crops/Areas
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

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