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A Diagnostic Assay to Detect Herbicide Resistance in Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 July 2017

James T. Brosnan*
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Research Associate, Graduate Research Assistant, Visiting Scholar, and Extension Specialist, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996
Jose J. Vargas
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Research Associate, Graduate Research Assistant, Visiting Scholar, and Extension Specialist, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996
Eric H. Reasor
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Research Associate, Graduate Research Assistant, Visiting Scholar, and Extension Specialist, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996
Roberto Viggiani
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Research Associate, Graduate Research Assistant, Visiting Scholar, and Extension Specialist, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996
Gregory K. Breeden
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Research Associate, Graduate Research Assistant, Visiting Scholar, and Extension Specialist, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996
John M. Zobel
Affiliation:
Assistant Professor, Department of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996
*
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: jbrosnan@utk.edu

Abstract

Turfgrass managers currently have few readily available means of evaluating herbicide resistance in annual bluegrass during the growing season. Research was conducted to determine if agar-based diagnostic tests developed for agronomic weeds could be used to reliably confirm herbicide resistance in annual bluegrass harvested from golf course turf. Annual bluegrass phenotypes with target-site resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS; R3, R7), enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; R5), and photosystem II (PSII; R3, R4) inhibiting herbicides were included in experiments along with an herbicidal susceptible phenotype (S). Single tiller plants were washed free of soil and transplanted into autoclavable polycarbonate plant culture boxes filled with plant tissue culture agar amended with a murashigee-skoog medium and trifloxysulfuron (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, or 150 μM), glyphosate (0, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 μM), or simazine (0, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 μM). Mortality in agar was assessed 7 to 10 days after treatment (depending on herbicide) and compared to responses observed after treating individual plants of each phenotype with trifloxysulfuron (28 g ai ha-1), glyphosate (1120 g ae ha-1), or simazine (1120 g ai ha-1) in an enclosed spray chamber. Fisher’s exact test (α = 0.05) determined that mortality in agar with 12.5 μM trifloxysulfuron and 100 μM glyphosate was not significantly different than treating whole plants via traditional spray application. Mortality with all concentrations of simazine in agar was significantly different than that observed after treating resistant and susceptible phenotypes via traditional spray application. Our findings indicate that an agar-based diagnostic assay can be used to detect annual bluegrass resistance to ALS- or EPSPS-inhibiting herbicides in less than 10 days; however, additional research is needed to refine this assay for use with PSII-inhibiting herbicides.

Type
Weed Management-Other Crops/Areas
Copyright
© Weed Science Society of America, 2017 

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Footnotes

Associate Editor for this paper: Scott McElroy, Auburn University.

References

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