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Cultivar and Weeding Effects on Weeds and Rice Yields in a Degraded Upland Environment of the Coastal Savanna

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Amadou Touré*
Affiliation:
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin
Jonne Rodenburg
Affiliation:
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), East and Southern Africa Rice Program (ESARP), P.O. Box 33581, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Kazuki Saito
Affiliation:
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin
Sylvester Oikeh
Affiliation:
African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF), Nairobi, Kenya
Koichi Futakuchi
Affiliation:
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin
Dieudonné Gumedzoe
Affiliation:
Ecole des Sciences Agronomiques, Université de Lomé, BP 1515, Lomé, Togo
Joel Huat
Affiliation:
CIRAD/Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin
*
Corresponding author's E-mail: a.d.toure@cgiar.org

Abstract

Weeds are a major constraint to rice production in labor-limited, upland rice-based systems in West Africa. The effects of weeding regimes and rice cultivars on weed growth and rice yield were investigated at two upland locations (Abomey-Calavi and Niaouli) in the degraded coastal savanna zone of Benin in 2005 and 2006 with below-average rainfall. Four weeding regimes (hoe weeding at 21 d after sowing [DAS], delayed hoe weeding at 31 DAS, hoe weeding at 21 and 42 DAS, and a no weeding control) were the main plot treatments. Cultivars comprising three interspecific upland rice cultivars (NERICA 1, NERICA 2, and NERICA 7) and the parents (Oryza sativa WAB56-104 and O. glaberrima CG14) were tested in subplots. The most dominant weed species identified were Jamaican crabgrass, Mariscus, and silver spinach. Rice yield was generally low because of drought stress; none of the experiments had a higher mean yield than 1,400 kg ha−1 across cultivars. Across cultivars, the best weeding regimes in terms of weed control and rice yields were single weeding at 31 DAS (W31) and double weeding at 21 and 42 DAS (W21+42). Under these weeding regimes, WAB56-104 out-yielded the three NERICA cultivars. CG14 showed the strongest weed suppressive ability (WSA) in Abomey-Calavi but did not have strong WSA in Niaouli because of lower biomass accumulation. WSA of WAB56-104 was similar to that of the three NERICA cultivars. Single weeding at 31 DAS, together with the use of cultivars with good adaptation to unfavorable rice growing conditions, would increase land and labor productivity of upland rice-based systems in West Africa.

Las malezas son una de las principales limitantes para la producción de arroz en los sistemas de siembra en secano, en áreas con escasez de mano de obra, en el occidente de África. En 2005 y 2006, se investigaron los efectos de regímenes de deshierbe manual y los cultivares de arroz en el crecimiento de malezas y en el rendimiento de arroz en dos sitios de secano (Abomey-Calavi y Niaouli) en la degradada zona costera de la sabana de Benin, con lluvias por debajo del promedio. Los tratamientos en la parcela principal fueron cuatro regímenes de deshierbe: deshierbe con azadón a los 21 días después de la siembra (DDS), deshierbe tardío con azadón a los 31 DDS y deshierbe con azadón a los 21 y 42 DDS, y ningún deshierbe de malezas. Se evaluaron en subparcelas, tres cultivares interespecíficos de arroz de secano (NERICA 1, NERICA 2 y NERICA 7) y los progenitores (Oryza sativa WAB56-104 y O. glaberrima CG14). Las especies de malezas más dominantes que se identificaron fueron Digitaria horizontalis, Mariscus alternifolius y Celosia trigyna. El rendimiento de arroz fue generalmente bajo debido al estrés causado por la sequía; ninguno de los experimentos tuvo un rendimiento medio mayor de 1,400 kg ha-1 en todos los cultivares. Entre todos los cultivares, los mejores regímenes en términos de control de malezas y rendimiento de arroz fueron el de un solo deshierbe a los 31 DDS (W31) y el de doble deshierbe a los 21 y 42 DDS (W21+42). Con estos regímenes, WAB-56-104 rindió más que los tres cultivares NERICA. CG14 mostró la habilidad más fuerte de supresión de malezas en Abomey- Calavi, pero no en Niaouli, debido a una acumulación menor de biomasa. La habilidad de supresión de malezas de WAB56-104 fue similar a los tres cultivares NERICA. Un solo deshierbe a los 31 DDS, junto con el uso de cultivares con buena adaptación a condiciones desfavorables de crecimiento, mejoraría la productividad de la tierra y de la mano de obra en los sistemas de producción de arroz en secano en el occidente de África.

Type
Weed Management—Major Crops
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

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