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Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Response to Sublethal Rates of Dicamba, Glufosinate, and 2,4-D

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Virginia A. Johnson
Affiliation:
Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695
Loren R. Fisher*
Affiliation:
Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695
David L. Jordan
Affiliation:
Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695
Keith E. Edmisten
Affiliation:
Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695
Alexander M. Stewart
Affiliation:
Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695
Alan C. York
Affiliation:
Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695
*
Corresponding author's E-mail: loren_fisher@ncsu.edu

Abstract

Development and utilization of dicamba-, glufosinate-, and 2,4-D-resistant crop cultivars will potentially have a significant influence on weed management in the southern United States. However, off-site movement to adjacent nontolerant crops and other plants is a concern in many areas of eastern North Carolina and other portions of the southeastern United States, especially where sensitive crops are grown. Cotton, peanut, and soybean are not resistant to these herbicides, will most likely be grown in proximity, and applicators will need to consider potential adverse effects on nonresistant crops when these herbicides are used. Research was conducted with rates of glufosinate, dicamba, and 2,4-D designed to simulate drift on cotton, peanut, and soybean to determine effects on yield and quality and to test correlations of visual estimates of percent injury with crop yield and a range of growth and quality parameters. Experiments were conducted in North Carolina near Lewiston-Woodville and Rocky Mount during 2009 and 2010. Cotton and peanut (Lewiston-Woodville and Rocky Mount) and soybean (two separate fields [Rocky Mount] during each year were treated with dicamba and the amine formulation of 2,4-D at 1/2, 1/8, 1/32, 1/128, and 1/512 the manufacturer's suggested use rate of 280 g ai ha−1 and 540 g ai ha−1, respectively. Glufosinate was applied at rates equivalent to 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 the manufacturer's suggested use rate of 604 g ai ha−1. A wide range of visible injury was noted at both 1 and 2 wk after treatment (WAT) for all crops. Crop yield was reduced for most crops when herbicides were applied at the highest rate. Although correlations of injury 1 and 2 WAT with yield were significant (P ≤ 0.05), coefficients ranged from −0.25 to −0.50, −0.36 to −0.62, and −0.40 to −0.67 for injury 1 WAT vs. yield for cotton, peanut, and soybean, respectively. These respective crops had ranges of correlations of −0.17 to −0.43, −0.34 to −0.64, and −0.41 to −0.60 for injury 2 WAT. Results from these experiments will be used to emphasize the need for diligence in application of these herbicides in proximity to crops that are susceptible as well as the need to clean sprayers completely before spraying sensitive crops.

El desarrollo y la utilización de cultivares resistentes a dicamba, glufosinate y 2,4-D, tendrá potencialmente una influencia importante en el manejo de malezas en el sur de los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, la deriva de estos herbicidas a cultivos adyacentes no tolerantes y a otras plantas, es una preocupación en muchas áreas del este de Carolina del Norte y otras regiones del sureste de los Estados Unidos, especialmente donde se siembran cultivos sensibles. El algodón, el maní y la soyano son resistentes a estos herbicidas, y muy probablemente serán sembrados con cierta cercanía y los aplicadores necesitarán tomar en consideración los efectos adversos potenciales en cultivos no resistentes cuando éstos herbicidas sean usados. Se realizó una investigación con dosis de glufosinate, dicamba, y 2,4-D, diseñadas para simular deriva sobre algodón, maní y soya, para determinar los efectos en el rendimiento y la calidad y para probar las correlaciones de estimaciones visuales del porcentaje de daño con el rendimiento del cultivo y un rango de parámetros de crecimiento y calidad. Los experimentos se realizaron en Carolina del Norte cerca de Lewiston-Woodville y Rocky Mount durante 2009 y 2010. El algodón y el maní (Lewiston-Woodville y Rocky Mount) y la soya en dos campos separados en Rocky Mount durante cada año, se trataron con dicamba y una formulación amina de 2,4-D a 1/2, 1/8, 1/32, 1/128 y 1/512, de la dosis sugerida por los fabricantes, de 280 g ia ha-1 y 540 g ia ha-1, respectivamente. El glufosinate se aplicó a dosis equivalentes a 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16 y 1/32 de la dosis recomendada en la etiqueta, de 604 g ia ha-1. Se observó una amplia gama de daño visible a una y dos semanas después del tratamiento (WAT) para todos los cultivos. El rendimiento se redujo para la mayoría de los cultivos cuando los herbicidas se aplicaron a la mayor dosis. Aunque las correlaciones de daño a una y dos WAT con respecto al rendimiento fueron significativas (p ≤ 0.05), los coeficientes variaron de −0.25 a −0.50, de −0.36 a −0.62 y de −0.40 a −0.67 de daño a una WAT, en comparación con el rendimiento de algodón, maní y soya, respectivamente. Estos cultivos respectivos tuvieron rangos de correlación de −0.17 a −0.43, de −0.34 a −0.64 y de −0.41 a −0.60 de daño a dos WAT. Los resultados de estos experimentos serán usados para enfatizar la necesidad de ser diligentes en la aplicación de estos herbicidas al estar cerca de cultivos susceptibles, así como la necesidad de limpiar completamente los aspersores antes de aplicar sobre los cultivos sensibles.

Type
Weed Management—Major Crops
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

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