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Adoption of Best Management Practices for Herbicide-Resistant Weeds in Midsouthern United States Cotton, Rice, and Soybean

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Dilpreet S. Riar*
Affiliation:
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, 1366 West Altheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
Jason K. Norsworthy
Affiliation:
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, 1366 West Altheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
Lawrence E. Steckel
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, 605 Airways Boulevard, Jackson, TN 38301
Daniel O. Stephenson IV
Affiliation:
Dean Lee Research Station, LSU AgCenter, 8105 Tom Bowman Drive, Alexandria, LA 71302
Thomas W. Eubank
Affiliation:
Delta Research and Extension Center, 82 Stoneville Road, Stoneville, MS 38776
Jason Bond
Affiliation:
Delta Research and Extension Center, 82 Stoneville Road, Stoneville, MS 38776
Robert C. Scott
Affiliation:
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Lonoke, Box 357, AR 72086
*
Corresponding author's E-mail: driar@uark.edu

Abstract

In fall 2011, cotton and soybean consultants from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee were surveyed through direct mail and on-farm visits, and rice consultants from Arkansas and Mississippi were surveyed through direct mail to assess the importance and level of implementation of herbicide resistance best management practices (HR-BMPs) for herbicide-resistant weeds. Proper herbicide timing, clean start with no weeds at planting, application of multiple effective herbicide modes of action, use of full labeled herbicide rates, and prevention of crop weed seed production with importance rating of ≥ 4.6 out of 5.0 were perceived as the most important HR-BMPs in all crops. Purchase of certified rice seed was on 90% of scouted hectares. In contrast, least important HR-BMPs as perceived by consultants with importance ratings of ≤ 4.0 in cotton, ≤ 3.7 in rice, and ≤ 3.8 in soybean were cultural practices such as manual removal of weeds; tillage including disking, cultivation, or deep tillage; narrow (≤ 50 cm)-row crops, cover crops, and altered planting dates. Narrow crop rows and cover crops in cotton; altered planting dates in cotton and soybean; and cleaning of farm equipment and manual weeding in rice and soybean is currently employed on ≤ 20% of scouted hectares. Extra costs, time constraints, adverse weather conditions, lack of labor and equipment, profitability, herbicide-related concerns, and complacency were perceived as key obstacles for adoption of most HR-BMPs. With limited adoption of most cultural practices that reduce risks of herbicide-resistant weeds, there are opportunities to educate growers concerning the proactive need and long-term benefits of adopting HR-BMPs to ensure sustainable weed management and profitable crop production.

En el otoño de 2011, se encuestó a asesores para la producción de algodón y soya de Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, y Tennessee mediante correo directo o visitas en finca, y a asesores de producción de arroz de Arkansas y Mississippi mediante correo directo, para evaluar la importancia y el nivel de implementación de las mejores prácticas de manejo de resistencia a herbicidas (HR-BMPs) para el manejo de malezas resistentes a herbicidas. El momento apropiado de aplicación del herbicida, la siembra en condiciones libres de malezas, la aplicación de múltiples herbicidas efectivos con diferentes modos de acción, el uso de la dosis alta del herbicida, y la prevención de producción de semilla de malezas dentro del cultivo fueron percibidas como las HR-BMPs más importantes en todos los cultivos con niveles de importancia ≥4.6 de 5.0. La compra de semilla certificada de arroz estuvo presente en 90% de las hectáreas evaluadas. En cambio, las HR-BMPs menos importantes según la percepción de los asesores con niveles de importancia ≤4.0 en algodón, ≤3.7 en arroz, y ≤3.8 en soya fueron prácticas culturales tales como la deshierba manual, la labranza con discos, el cultivo, o la labranza profunda, el uso de distancias de siembra reducidas entre hileras (≤50 cm), uso de coberturas vivas, y modificación de fechas de siembra. El uso de distancias reducidas entre hileras y de coberturas vivas en algodón, la modificación de fechas de siembra en algodón y soya, y la limpieza de equipo agrícola y la deshierba manual en arroz y soya son utilizados actualmente en ≤20% de las hectáreas evaluadas. Costos extra, limitaciones en disponibilidad de tiempo, condiciones climáticas adversas, falta de mano de obra y equipo, rentabilidad, preocupaciones relacionadas a los herbicidas, y la complacencia fueron percibidos como los principales obstáculos para la adopción de la mayoría de las HR-BMPs. La limitada adopción de la mayoría de las prácticas culturales para reducir los riesgos de las malezas resistentes a herbicidas, indican que existen oportunidades para educar a los productores sobre la necesidad y los beneficios en el largo plazo de adoptar HR-BMPs para asegurar el manejo sostenible de malezas y la rentabilidad de la producción.

Type
Education/Extension
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

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Adoption of Best Management Practices for Herbicide-Resistant Weeds in Midsouthern United States Cotton, Rice, and Soybean
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