The objective of this study was to examine the effects of crop rotation (spring barley monoculture vs. spring barley–red clover 2-yr rotation), tillage (moldboard plow, chisel plow, no-till), and weed management (intensive, moderate, minimum) on plant–seedbank relationships for 19 weed species. Plant and seedbank density data were collected over 4 yr and analyzed by analysis of variance and correlation analysis to confirm treatment effects on plant–seedbank relationships. The relative frequency (difference between aboveground and seedbank frequency) of many species was more influenced by rotation, whereas species density appeared regulated more by weed management than by other factors. Frequency data confirmed that very few species were ubiquitous over time or treatment, aboveground or in the seedbank. The perennial species, field horsetail, quackgrass, white clover, and perennial sowthistle were more frequent aboveground than in the seedbank. This was also observed for annuals such as common hempnettle, sun spurge, catchweed bedstraw, and annual grasses. Treatment effects on abundance were inconsistent aboveground and in the seedbank across time for 12 of 19 species. The seven species that showed more consistent treatment response for abundance were frequent species present in 50% of the plots both aboveground and in the seedbank. For most species, plant density was correlated with either the previous or current year seedbank, but correlations were rarely of the same magnitude and significance over the years. Common chickweed was the only species for which treatment effects on the plant–seedbank relationship were confirmed for all 4 yr. Correlations between midseason plant populations and subsequent seedbanks confirmed the role of residual populations in replenishing the seedbanks, including those of perennials like quackgrass and dandelion. Overall, plant–seedbank relationships were tenuous for many weed species and varied over time with cropping practices and environment.