Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-hffkp Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-26T23:44:33.428Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

A waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) biotype with multiple resistance across three herbicide sites of action

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

William L. Patzoldt
Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801
Patrick J. Tranel
Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801


A population of waterhemp was identified in Adams County, Illinois, that survived treatment of several acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and a postemergence (POST) application of lactofen, a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)–inhibiting herbicide. Greenhouse studies were conducted to quantify the responses of this waterhemp population, designated ACR, to multiple PPO inhibitors and various other herbicides with different sites of action. Resistance ratios were obtained by comparing herbicide dose–response curves between the ACR population and a herbicide-susceptible waterhemp population. The ACR population was resistant to lactofen (23-fold) and to five other PPO-inhibiting herbicides (ranging from 2.2- to 6.2-fold). Furthermore, the ACR waterhemp population was 17,000-fold and 18,000-fold resistant to imazamox and thifensulfuron, respectively, two ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In response to atrazine, a Photosystem II inhibitor, the ACR population was 38-fold resistant. Plants within the ACR waterhemp population survived treatment of a herbicide mixture containing lactofen at 175 g ai ha−1, imazamox at 44 g ae ha−1, and atrazine at 1,000 g ai ha−1. Thus, individual plants—not just the population as a whole—displayed multiple herbicide resistance. The ACR population was not resistant to glyphosate or paraquat. This is the first reported weed population from the United States with resistances to herbicides inhibiting three unique sites of action. Furthermore, this research identifies a significant reduction in the number of POST herbicide options available for waterhemp control in soybean production.

Physiology, Chemistry, and Biochemistry
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Literature Cited

Anderson, D. D., Roeth, F. W., and Martin, A. R. 1996. Occurrence and control of triazine-resistant common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) in field corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 10:570575.Google Scholar
Costea, M. and Tardif, F. J. 2003. Conspectus and notes on the genus Amaranthus in Canada. Rhodora 105:260281.Google Scholar
Cummins, I., Cole, D. J., and Edwards, R. 1999. A role for glutathione transferases functioning as glutathione peroxidases in resistance to multiple herbicides in black-grass. Plant J 18:285292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foes, M. J., Liu, L., Tranel, P. J., Wax, L. M., and Stoller, E. W. 1998. A biotype of common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) resistant to triazine and ALS herbicides. Weed Sci 31:514520.Google Scholar
Hager, A. G., Patzoldt, W. L., and Tranel, P. J. 2002a. Confirmation of PPO-inhibitor resistance in an Illinois waterhemp population. Proc. North Cent. Weed Sci 57:71.Google Scholar
Hager, A. G., Wax, L. M., Bollero, G. A., and Simmons, F. W. 2002b. Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) management with soil-applied herbicides in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). Crop Prot 21:277283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hager, A. G., Wax, L. M., Simmons, F. W., and Stoller, E. W. 1997. Waterhemp Management in Agronomic Crops. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. 12 p.Google Scholar
Hartzler, R. G., Buhler, D. D., and Stoltenberg, D. E. 1999. Emergence characteristics of four annual weed species. Weed Sci 47:578584.Google Scholar
Heap, I. 1997. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Pestic. Sci 51:235243.3.0.CO;2-N>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heap, I. 2004. International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Scholar
Hess, F. D. 2000. Light-dependent herbicides: an overview. Weed Sci 48:160170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinz, J. R. R. and Owen, M. D. K. 1997. Acetolactate synthase resistance in a common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) population. Weed Technol 11:1318.Google Scholar
Horak, M. J. and Peterson, D. E. 1995. Biotypes of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) are resistant to imazethapyr and thifensulfuron. Weed Technol 9:192195.Google Scholar
Mosyakin, S. L. and Robertson, K. R. 2004. Flora of North America. Pages 410416 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 4. 7+ vols. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Patzoldt, W. L., Dixon, B. S., and Tranel, P. J. 2003. Triazine resistance in Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) Sauer that is not site-of-action mediated. Pest Manag. Sci 59:11341142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patzoldt, W. L., Tranel, P. J., and Hager, A. G. 2002. Variable herbicide responses among Illinois waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis and A. tuberculatus) populations. Crop Prot 21:707712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pratt, D. B. and Clark, L. G. 2001. Amaranthus rudis and A. tuberculatus— one species or two? J. Torrey Bot. Soc 128:282296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seefeldt, S. S., Jensen, J. E., and Fuerst, E. P. 1995. Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationships. Weed Technol 9:218227.Google Scholar
Shoup, D. E., Al-Khatib, K., and Peterson, D. E. 2003. Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci 51:145150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Souza-Machado, V. and Bandeen, J. D. 1982. Genetic analysis of chloroplast atrazine resistance in Brassica campestris—cytoplasmic inheritance. Weed Sci 30:281285.Google Scholar
Sprague, C. L., Stoller, E. W., and Wax, L. M. 1997. Response of an acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant biotype of Amaranthus rudis to selected ALS-inhibiting and alternative herbicides. Weed Res 37:93101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[USDA] U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2004. National Agricultural Statistical Service. Agricultural Chemical Usage (PCU-BB). Scholar
Walsh, M. J., Powles, S. B., Beard, B. R., Parkin, B. T., and Porter, S. A. 2004. Multiple-herbicide resistance across four modes of action in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). Weed Sci 52:813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar