The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic contribution to handedness and footedness in childhood using one of the largest available databases of Japanese twins. The participants were 1131 twin pairs, 1057 males and 1205 females, of 11 or 12 years of age (6th grade of secondary school in the Japanese education system). All data were gathered by questionnaire. The prevalence of left (nonright) handedness was 15% in males and 13% in females. The prevalence of left (nonright) footedness was 13% in males and 11% in females. The similarities between twin pairs, estimated by concordance rates and tetrachoric correlations, suggested a slight genetic effect on male handedness, no genetic effect on female handedness, and no genetic effect on footedness in either sex. Structural equation modeling showed small genetic factors (11%) in male handedness and no genetic factors in female handedness. As to footedness, no genetic factors were observed in either sex. The effects of nonshared environmental factors were large (85%) in males and moderate (44%) in females. Moreover, handedness and footedness tended to be concordant irrespective of sex, with polychoric correlations over r = .70. The results of bivariate genetic analyses were not necessarily satisfactory. For males, no model fit. For females, shared and nonshared environmental factors explained the concordance of handedness and footedness. It was concluded that the genetic effects on handedness and footedness are relatively small, as is their association; moreover, considerably large twin samples are needed to obtain stable and appropriate results.