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The Latent Class Structure of ADHD Is Stable Across Informants

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 February 2012

Robert R. Althoff
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington,Vermont, United States of America.
William E. Copeland
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.
Catherine Stanger
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington,Vermont, United States of America.
Eske M. Derks
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Psychology,Vrije University,Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Richard D. Todd
Affiliation:
Departments of Psychiatry and Genetics,Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
Rosalind J. Neuman
Affiliation:
Departments of Psychiatry and Genetics,Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
Toos C. E. M. Van Beijsterveldt
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Psychology,Vrije University,Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Dorret I. Boomsma
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Psychology,Vrije University,Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
James J. Hudziak*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington,Vermont, United States of America. jhudziak@zoo.uvm.edu
*
*Address for correspondence: James J. Hudziak, University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Behavioral Genetics, Given B229, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.

Abstract

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Previous studies have looked at the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using latent class analysis (LCA) of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) symptom structure. These studies have identified distinct classes of children with inattentive, hyperactive, or combined subtypes and have used these classes to refine genetic analyses. The objective of the current report is to determine if the latent class structure of ADHD subtypes is consistent across informant using the Conners' Rating Scales (CRS). LCA was applied to CRS forms from mother, father, and teacher reports of 1837, 1329 and 1048 latency aged Dutch twins, respectively. The optimal solution for boys was a 5-class solution for mothers, a 3-class solution for fathers, and a 4-class solution for teachers. For girls, a 4-class solution for mothers and a 3-class for fathers and teachers was optimal. Children placed into a class by one informant had markedly increased odds ratio of being placed into the same or similar class by the other informants. Results from LCA using Dutch twins with the CRS show stability across informants suggesting that more stable phenotypes may be accessible for genotyping using a multi-informant approach.

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Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2006
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