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Sekolah Islam (Islamic Schools) as Symbols of Indonesia's Urban Muslim Identity

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 July 2021

Yanwar Pribadi*
Affiliation:
Department of Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam, UIN Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten, Indonesia
*
*Corresponding author. Email: yanwar.pribadi@uinbanten.ac.id

Abstract

This article discusses the relationship between Sekolah Islam (Salafism-influenced Islamic schools) and urban middle-class Muslims. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the City of Serang (Kota Serang), near Jakarta, this paper argues that these conservative and puritan Muslims demonstrate their Islamic identity politics through their engagement with Sekolah Islam. The analysis of in-depth interviews with and close observations of parents of students and school custodians (preachers or occasionally spiritual trainers) at several Sekolah Islam reveals that they have attempted to pursue ‘true’ Islamic identity and have claimed recognition of their identity as the most appropriate. The pursuit of a ‘true’ Islamic identity has infused Islamic identity politics, and there is an oppositional relationship between local Islamic traditions and Salafism, as seen in Sekolah Islam. The relationship between Islam and identity politics becomes intricate when it is transformed into public symbols, discourses, and practices at many Sekolah Islam. This paper shows that through their understanding and activities at Sekolah Islam, these Muslims are avid actors in the contemporary landscape of Islamic identity politics in Indonesia. By taking examples from Sekolah Islam in Indonesia, this article unveils social transformations that may also take place in the larger Muslim world.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Institute for East Asian Studies, Sogang University

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References

References

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Amir, Sulfikar. 2009. “A message from Ashabirin: High technology and political Islam in Indonesia.” In Mediating Piety: Technology and Religion in Contemporary Asia, edited by Gee Lim, Francis Khek, 7389. Leiden and Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
Ansori, Mohammad Hasan. 2009. “Consumerism and the emergence of a new middle class in globalizing Indonesia.” Explorations: A Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 9: 8797.Google Scholar
Ayoob, Mohammed. 2004. “Political Islam: Image and reality.” World Policy Journal 21(3): 114.Google Scholar
Azra, Azyumardi, and Afrianty, Dina. “Pesantren and madrasa: Modernization of Indonesian Muslim society.” Paper presented at Workshop on Madrasa, Modernity and Islamic Education, Boston University, 6–7 May 2005.Google Scholar
Bayat, Asef. 2010. Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 1994. NU, Tradisi, Relasi-relasi Kuasa, Pencarian Wacana Baru. Yogyakarta: LKiS.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 1995. “Shari'a court, tarekat and pesantren: Religious institutions in the Banten Sultanate.” Archipel 50(Banten d'une région): 165199.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 2008. “Traditionalist and Islamist pesantrens in contemporary Indonesia.” In The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages, edited by Noor, Farish A., Sikand, Yoginder, and Bruinessen, Martin van, 217245. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 2013. “Introduction: Contemporary developments in Indonesian Islam and the “conservative turn” of the early twenty-first century.” In Contemporary Developments in Indonesian Islam: Explaining the ‘Conservative Turn’, edited by Bruinessen, Martin van, 120. Singapore: ISEAS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 2015. “Ghazwul fikri or Arabization? Indonesian Muslim responses to globalization.” In Southeast Asian Muslims in the Era of Globalization, edited by Miichi, Ken, and Farouk, Omar, 6185. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
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Effendy, Bahtiar. 2003. Islam and the State in Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
Fealy, Greg. 2008. “Consuming Islam: Commodified religion and aspirational pietism in contemporary Indonesia.” In Expressing Islam: Religious Life and Politics in Indonesia, edited by Fealy, Greg, and White, Sally, 1539. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
Hadiz, Vedi R. 2016. Islamic Populism in Indonesia and the Middle East. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hadiz, Vedi R. 2018. “Imagine all the people? Mobilising Islamic populism for right-wing politics in Indonesia.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 48(4): 566583.Google Scholar
Hadiz, Vedi R. 2019. “The ‘floating’ ummah in the fall of ‘Ahok’ in Indonesia.” TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia 7(2): 271290.Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2006. Laskar Jihad: Islam, Militancy, and the Quest for Identity in Post-New Order Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2009a. “The making of public Islam: Piety, agency, and commodification on the landscape of the Indonesian public sphere.” Contemporary Islam 3: 229250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2009b. “Islamizing formal education: Integrated Islamic schools and a new trend in formal education institution in Indonesia.” RSIS Working Paper 172, 11 February. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University. Available at: https://www.rsis.edu.sg/rsis-publication/idss/172-wp172-islamizing-formal-educ/#.YMCD7PkzbIU (accessed 23 August 2017).Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2012. “Education, young Islamists and integrated Islamic schools in Indonesia.” Studia Islamika 19(1): 77111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasyim, Syafiq. 2020. “Fatwas and democracy: Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI, Indonesian Ulema Council) and rising conservatism in Indonesian Islam.” TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia 8(1): 2135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haykel, Bernard. 2009. “On the nature of Salafi thought and action.” In Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 3357. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Hefner, Claire-Marie. 2016. “Models of achievement: Muslim girls and religious authority in a modernist Islamic boarding school in Indonesia.” Asian Studies Review 40(4): 564582.Google Scholar
Hefner, Robert W. 2000. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Hefner, Robert W. 2009. “Islamic schools, social movements, and democracy in Indonesia.” In Making Modern Muslims: The Politics of Islamic Education in Southeast Asia, edited by Hefner, Robert W., 55105. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.Google Scholar
Heryanto, Ariel. 2011. “Upgraded piety and pleasure: The new middle class and Islam in Indonesian popular culture.” In Islam and Popular Culture in Indonesia and Malaysia, edited by Weintraub, Andrew N., 6082. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hoesterey, James B. 2012. “Prophetic cosmopolitanism: Islam, pop psychology, and civic virtue in Indonesia.” City & Society 24(1): 3861.Google Scholar
Ismail, Salwa. 2006. Rethinking Islamist Politics: Culture, the State and Islamism. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
Jati, Wasisto Raharjo. 2015. “Less cash society: Menakar mode konsumerisme baru kelas menengah Indonesia.” Jurnal Sosioteknologi 14(2): 102112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klinken, Gerry van. 2016. “Pendahuluan: Demokrasi, pasar, dan kelas menengah yang asertif.” In In Search of Middle Indonesia: Kelas Menengah di Kota-kota Menengah, edited by Klinken, Gerry van, and Berenschot, Ward, 140. Jakarta: KITLV-Jakarta dan Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.Google Scholar
Lukens-Bull, Ronald. 2000. “Teaching morality: Javanese Islamic education in a globalizing era.” Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 3: 2648.Google Scholar
Lukens-Bull, Ronald. 2001. “Two sides of the same coin: Modernity and tradition in Islamic education in Indonesia.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 32(3): 350372.Google Scholar
Lukens-Bull, Ronald. 2008. “The traditions of pluralism, accommodation, and anti-radicalism in the pesantren community.” Journal of Indonesian Islam 2(1): 196211.Google Scholar
Macintyre, Andrew. 1991. Business and Politics in Indonesia. North Sydney, NSW: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
Mahmood, Saba. 2005. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Mietzner, Marcus, Burhanuddin, Muhtadi, and Rizka, Halida. 2018. “Entrepreneurs of grievance: Drivers and effects of Indonesia's Islamist mobilization.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 174(2/3): 159187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millie, Julian, Barton, Greg, Hindasah, Linda, and Mikihiro, Moriyama. 2014. “Post-authoritarian diversity in Indonesia's state-owned mosques: A manakiban case study.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 45(2): 194213.Google Scholar
Nafis, M. Muntahibun. 2017. Pesantren Pluralis: Peran Pesantren Ngalah dalam Mengembangkan Nilai-nilai Pluralisme di Tengah Masyarakat yang Multikultural. Yogyakarta: Insan Madani.Google Scholar
Nilan, Pam. 2009. “The ‘spirit of education’ in Indonesian pesantren.” British Journal of Sociology of Education 30(2): 219232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noer, Deliar. 1973. The Modernist Muslim Movement in Indonesia, 1900–1942. Singapore: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Noor, Farish, Sikand, Yoginder, and van Bruinessen, Martin, eds. 2008. The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, Lyn. 2014. “Religious education for peaceful coexistence in Indonesia?” South East Asia Research 22(4): 487504.Google Scholar
Pohl, Florian. 2006. “Islamic education and civil society: Reflections on the pesantren tradition in contemporary Indonesia.” Comparative Education Review 50(3): 389409.Google Scholar
Pribadi, Yanwar. 2013. “Another side of Islam in Banten: The socio-political roles of jawara during the New Order era 1966–1998.” Journal of Indonesian Islam 7(2): 314–36.Google Scholar
Pribadi, Yanwar. 2020. “Pop and “true” Islam in urban pengajian: The making of religious authority.” In The New Santri: Challenges to Traditional Religious Authority in Indonesia, edited by Saat, Norshahril, and Burhani, Ahmad Najib, 213238. Singapore: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute.Google Scholar
Raihani, . 2012. “Report on multicultural education in pesantren.” Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 42(4): 585605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ricklefs, Merle Calvin. 2007. Polarising Javanese Society: Islamic and Other Visions, c. 1830–1930. Leiden: KITLV Press.Google Scholar
Ricklefs, Merle Calvin. 2013. “Religious elites and the state in Indonesia and elsewhere: Why takeovers are so difficult and usually don't work.” In Encountering Islam: The Politics of Religious Identities in Southeast Asia, edited by Yew-Foong, Hui, 1746. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
Salvatore, Armando, and Dale, Eickelman. 2004. “Preface: Pubic Islam and the common good.” In Public Islam and the Common Good, edited by Salvatore, Armando, and Eickelman, Dale, xixxv. Leiden and Boston: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tan, Charlene. 2011. Islamic Education and Indoctrination: The Case in Indonesia. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Tayeb, Azmil. 2018. Islamic Education in Indonesia and Malaysia: Shaping Minds, Saving Souls. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tihami, M.A. 1992. “Kiyai dan Jawara di Banten: Studi tentang Agama, Magi, dan Kepemimpinan di Desa Pasanggrahan Serang, Banten.” MA diss., Universitas Indonesia.Google Scholar
Ufen, Andreas. 2009. “Mobilising political Islam: Indonesia and Malaysia compared.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 47(3): 308333.Google Scholar
Wilson, Ian Douglas. 2003. “The Politics of Inner Power: The Practice of Pencak Silat in West Java.” Phd diss., Murdoch University.Google Scholar
Annisa (pseudonym), interviewed on 9 November 2020, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Eko (pseudonym), interviewed on 7 September 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Erik (pseudonym), interviewed on 24 May 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Hasan (pseudonym), interviewed on 20 July 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Ilham (pseudonym), interviewed on 15 July 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Izzan (pseudonym), interviewed on 1 November 2020, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Rita (pseudonym), interviewed on 18 August 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Siska (pseudonym), interviewed on 5 May 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Abdullah, Taufik. 1988. “The pesantren in historical perspective.” In Islam and Society in Southeast Asia, edited by Abdullah, Taufik, and Siddique, Sharon, 80107. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
Amir, Sulfikar. 2009. “A message from Ashabirin: High technology and political Islam in Indonesia.” In Mediating Piety: Technology and Religion in Contemporary Asia, edited by Gee Lim, Francis Khek, 7389. Leiden and Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
Ansori, Mohammad Hasan. 2009. “Consumerism and the emergence of a new middle class in globalizing Indonesia.” Explorations: A Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 9: 8797.Google Scholar
Ayoob, Mohammed. 2004. “Political Islam: Image and reality.” World Policy Journal 21(3): 114.Google Scholar
Azra, Azyumardi, and Afrianty, Dina. “Pesantren and madrasa: Modernization of Indonesian Muslim society.” Paper presented at Workshop on Madrasa, Modernity and Islamic Education, Boston University, 6–7 May 2005.Google Scholar
Bayat, Asef. 2010. Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 1994. NU, Tradisi, Relasi-relasi Kuasa, Pencarian Wacana Baru. Yogyakarta: LKiS.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 1995. “Shari'a court, tarekat and pesantren: Religious institutions in the Banten Sultanate.” Archipel 50(Banten d'une région): 165199.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 2008. “Traditionalist and Islamist pesantrens in contemporary Indonesia.” In The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages, edited by Noor, Farish A., Sikand, Yoginder, and Bruinessen, Martin van, 217245. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 2013. “Introduction: Contemporary developments in Indonesian Islam and the “conservative turn” of the early twenty-first century.” In Contemporary Developments in Indonesian Islam: Explaining the ‘Conservative Turn’, edited by Bruinessen, Martin van, 120. Singapore: ISEAS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 2015. “Ghazwul fikri or Arabization? Indonesian Muslim responses to globalization.” In Southeast Asian Muslims in the Era of Globalization, edited by Miichi, Ken, and Farouk, Omar, 6185. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, Martin van. 2018. “Indonesian Muslims in a globalizing world: Westernization, Arabization, and indigenizing responses.” RSIS Working Paper 311, May 3. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University. Available at: https://www.rsis.edu.sg/rsis-publication/rsis/wp311-indonesian-muslims-in-a-globalising-world-westernisationarabisation-and-indigenising-responses/ (accessed 19 March 2021).Google Scholar
Bryner, Karen. 2013. “Piety Projects: Islamic Schools for Indonesia's Urban Middle Class.” PhD diss., Columbia University.Google Scholar
Damanik, Ali Said. 2002. Fenomena Partai Keadilan: Transformasi 20 Tahun Gerakan Tarbiyah di Indonesia. Jakarta: Teraju.Google Scholar
Effendy, Bahtiar. 2003. Islam and the State in Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
Fealy, Greg. 2008. “Consuming Islam: Commodified religion and aspirational pietism in contemporary Indonesia.” In Expressing Islam: Religious Life and Politics in Indonesia, edited by Fealy, Greg, and White, Sally, 1539. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
Hadiz, Vedi R. 2016. Islamic Populism in Indonesia and the Middle East. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hadiz, Vedi R. 2018. “Imagine all the people? Mobilising Islamic populism for right-wing politics in Indonesia.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 48(4): 566583.Google Scholar
Hadiz, Vedi R. 2019. “The ‘floating’ ummah in the fall of ‘Ahok’ in Indonesia.” TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia 7(2): 271290.Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2006. Laskar Jihad: Islam, Militancy, and the Quest for Identity in Post-New Order Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2009a. “The making of public Islam: Piety, agency, and commodification on the landscape of the Indonesian public sphere.” Contemporary Islam 3: 229250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2009b. “Islamizing formal education: Integrated Islamic schools and a new trend in formal education institution in Indonesia.” RSIS Working Paper 172, 11 February. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University. Available at: https://www.rsis.edu.sg/rsis-publication/idss/172-wp172-islamizing-formal-educ/#.YMCD7PkzbIU (accessed 23 August 2017).Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2012. “Education, young Islamists and integrated Islamic schools in Indonesia.” Studia Islamika 19(1): 77111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasyim, Syafiq. 2020. “Fatwas and democracy: Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI, Indonesian Ulema Council) and rising conservatism in Indonesian Islam.” TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia 8(1): 2135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haykel, Bernard. 2009. “On the nature of Salafi thought and action.” In Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 3357. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Hefner, Claire-Marie. 2016. “Models of achievement: Muslim girls and religious authority in a modernist Islamic boarding school in Indonesia.” Asian Studies Review 40(4): 564582.Google Scholar
Hefner, Robert W. 2000. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Hefner, Robert W. 2009. “Islamic schools, social movements, and democracy in Indonesia.” In Making Modern Muslims: The Politics of Islamic Education in Southeast Asia, edited by Hefner, Robert W., 55105. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.Google Scholar
Heryanto, Ariel. 2011. “Upgraded piety and pleasure: The new middle class and Islam in Indonesian popular culture.” In Islam and Popular Culture in Indonesia and Malaysia, edited by Weintraub, Andrew N., 6082. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hoesterey, James B. 2012. “Prophetic cosmopolitanism: Islam, pop psychology, and civic virtue in Indonesia.” City & Society 24(1): 3861.Google Scholar
Ismail, Salwa. 2006. Rethinking Islamist Politics: Culture, the State and Islamism. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
Jati, Wasisto Raharjo. 2015. “Less cash society: Menakar mode konsumerisme baru kelas menengah Indonesia.” Jurnal Sosioteknologi 14(2): 102112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klinken, Gerry van. 2016. “Pendahuluan: Demokrasi, pasar, dan kelas menengah yang asertif.” In In Search of Middle Indonesia: Kelas Menengah di Kota-kota Menengah, edited by Klinken, Gerry van, and Berenschot, Ward, 140. Jakarta: KITLV-Jakarta dan Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.Google Scholar
Lukens-Bull, Ronald. 2000. “Teaching morality: Javanese Islamic education in a globalizing era.” Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 3: 2648.Google Scholar
Lukens-Bull, Ronald. 2001. “Two sides of the same coin: Modernity and tradition in Islamic education in Indonesia.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 32(3): 350372.Google Scholar
Lukens-Bull, Ronald. 2008. “The traditions of pluralism, accommodation, and anti-radicalism in the pesantren community.” Journal of Indonesian Islam 2(1): 196211.Google Scholar
Macintyre, Andrew. 1991. Business and Politics in Indonesia. North Sydney, NSW: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
Mahmood, Saba. 2005. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Mietzner, Marcus, Burhanuddin, Muhtadi, and Rizka, Halida. 2018. “Entrepreneurs of grievance: Drivers and effects of Indonesia's Islamist mobilization.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 174(2/3): 159187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millie, Julian, Barton, Greg, Hindasah, Linda, and Mikihiro, Moriyama. 2014. “Post-authoritarian diversity in Indonesia's state-owned mosques: A manakiban case study.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 45(2): 194213.Google Scholar
Nafis, M. Muntahibun. 2017. Pesantren Pluralis: Peran Pesantren Ngalah dalam Mengembangkan Nilai-nilai Pluralisme di Tengah Masyarakat yang Multikultural. Yogyakarta: Insan Madani.Google Scholar
Nilan, Pam. 2009. “The ‘spirit of education’ in Indonesian pesantren.” British Journal of Sociology of Education 30(2): 219232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noer, Deliar. 1973. The Modernist Muslim Movement in Indonesia, 1900–1942. Singapore: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Noor, Farish, Sikand, Yoginder, and van Bruinessen, Martin, eds. 2008. The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, Lyn. 2014. “Religious education for peaceful coexistence in Indonesia?” South East Asia Research 22(4): 487504.Google Scholar
Pohl, Florian. 2006. “Islamic education and civil society: Reflections on the pesantren tradition in contemporary Indonesia.” Comparative Education Review 50(3): 389409.Google Scholar
Pribadi, Yanwar. 2013. “Another side of Islam in Banten: The socio-political roles of jawara during the New Order era 1966–1998.” Journal of Indonesian Islam 7(2): 314–36.Google Scholar
Pribadi, Yanwar. 2020. “Pop and “true” Islam in urban pengajian: The making of religious authority.” In The New Santri: Challenges to Traditional Religious Authority in Indonesia, edited by Saat, Norshahril, and Burhani, Ahmad Najib, 213238. Singapore: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute.Google Scholar
Raihani, . 2012. “Report on multicultural education in pesantren.” Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 42(4): 585605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ricklefs, Merle Calvin. 2007. Polarising Javanese Society: Islamic and Other Visions, c. 1830–1930. Leiden: KITLV Press.Google Scholar
Ricklefs, Merle Calvin. 2013. “Religious elites and the state in Indonesia and elsewhere: Why takeovers are so difficult and usually don't work.” In Encountering Islam: The Politics of Religious Identities in Southeast Asia, edited by Yew-Foong, Hui, 1746. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
Salvatore, Armando, and Dale, Eickelman. 2004. “Preface: Pubic Islam and the common good.” In Public Islam and the Common Good, edited by Salvatore, Armando, and Eickelman, Dale, xixxv. Leiden and Boston: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tan, Charlene. 2011. Islamic Education and Indoctrination: The Case in Indonesia. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Tayeb, Azmil. 2018. Islamic Education in Indonesia and Malaysia: Shaping Minds, Saving Souls. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tihami, M.A. 1992. “Kiyai dan Jawara di Banten: Studi tentang Agama, Magi, dan Kepemimpinan di Desa Pasanggrahan Serang, Banten.” MA diss., Universitas Indonesia.Google Scholar
Ufen, Andreas. 2009. “Mobilising political Islam: Indonesia and Malaysia compared.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 47(3): 308333.Google Scholar
Wilson, Ian Douglas. 2003. “The Politics of Inner Power: The Practice of Pencak Silat in West Java.” Phd diss., Murdoch University.Google Scholar
Annisa (pseudonym), interviewed on 9 November 2020, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Eko (pseudonym), interviewed on 7 September 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Erik (pseudonym), interviewed on 24 May 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Hasan (pseudonym), interviewed on 20 July 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Ilham (pseudonym), interviewed on 15 July 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Izzan (pseudonym), interviewed on 1 November 2020, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Rita (pseudonym), interviewed on 18 August 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar
Siska (pseudonym), interviewed on 5 May 2017, Serang, Indonesia.Google Scholar

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