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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 August 2006

Albert Valdman
Indiana University


I apologize for the overkill in ascribing the calque trou de nez “nostril” to Parkvall (2000). This confusion stems from my failure to check carefully the original sources cited in Chaudenson (2003, pp. 227–228). The African origin of Haitian Creole (HC) twou nen (misspelled twou-ne) is claimed by Lefebvre (1998, p. 335). Chaudenson is more thorough than I am, given that he cites the precise page numbers for the data he adduces. My comments about Parkvall's failure to consider the potential French origin for the various calques he cites still hold. There appears to be convergence of compounding strategies in the substrate languages and the French target. An analogous convergence also exists in the case of the postposed definite determiner (HC chat la “cat the”), in which models from French vernaculars and child language (Chaudenson 2003, pp. 280–286) no doubt served as filters for speakers whose languages had postposed nominal determiners.

© 2006 Cambridge University Press

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Chaudenson, R. (2003). La créolisation: Théorie, applications, implications. Paris: L'Harmattan.
Lefebvre, C. (1998). Creole genesis and the acquisition of grammar: The case of Haitian Creole. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Parkvall, M. (2000). Out of Africa. London: Battlebridge.
Valdman, A. (2000). L'évolution du lexique dans les créoles à base lexicale française. L'Information Grammaticale, 85, 5360.Google Scholar