Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-swr86 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-20T01:40:29.234Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

PROMOTING GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CAPTIONS AND TEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT IN MULTIMODAL INPUT-BASED TASKS

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 April 2020

Minjin Lee*
Affiliation:
Ewha Womans University
Andrea Révész
Affiliation:
University College London
*
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Minjin Lee, Department of English Education, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea. E-mail: mlee.minjin@gmail.com

Abstract

This study assessed the extent to which captions, textually unenhanced and enhanced, can draw learners’ attention to and promote the acquisition of a second language (L2) grammatical construction. A pretest–posttest–delayed posttest experimental design was employed. Seventy-two Korean learners of English were randomly assigned to an enhanced captions group, an unenhanced captions group, and a no captions group. Each group completed a series of treatment tasks, during which they watched news clips under their respective captioning condition. The target L2 construction was the use of the present perfect versus the past simple in reporting news. For the enhanced captions group, the present perfect and past simple forms were typographically enhanced using a different color. Eye-movement indices were obtained to examine attentional allocation during the treatment, and oral and written productive tests and a fill-in-the-blank test were used to assess participants’ gains. A series of mixed-effects models found both captioning and textual enhancement effective in drawing learners’ attention to and facilitating development in the use of the target construction. In addition, positive links were identified between attention to captions and learners’ gains.

Type
Research Article
Open Practices
Open materials
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

We would like to thank Aline Godfroid, Ana Pellicer-Sánchez, Carmen Muñoz, and Elke Peters for their insightful comments on previous versions of this manuscript. This research was supported in part by the International Research Foundation for English Language Education (TIRF) Doctoral Dissertation Grant and the Language Learning Dissertation Grant.

The experiment in this article earned an Open Materials badge for transparent practices. The materials are available at https://www.iris-database.org/iris/app/home/detail?id=york:937639

References

REFERENCES

Alsadoon, R., & Heift, T. (2015). Textual input enhancement for vowel blindness: A study with Arabic ESL learners. The Modern Language Journal, 99, 5779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bardovi‐Harlig, K. (2001). Another piece of the puzzle: The emergence of the present perfect. Language Learning, 5, 215264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H. J. (2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 255278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bird, S. A., & Williams, J. N. (2002). The effect of bimodal input on implicit and explicit memory: An investigation into the benefits of within-language subtitling. Applied Linguistics, 23, 509533.Google Scholar
Blom, E., Paradis, J., & Sorenson Duncan, T. (2012). Effects of input properties, vocabulary size, and L1 on the development of third person singular –s in child L2 English. Language Learning, 62, 965994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bygate, M., Skehan, P., & Swain, M. (2001). Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching and testing. Longman.Google Scholar
Chai, J., & Erlam, R. (2008). The effect and the influence of the use of video and captions on second language learning. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics, 14, 2544.Google Scholar
Cintrón-Valentín, M., García-Amaya, L., & Ellis, N. C. (2019). Captioning and grammar learning in the L2 Spanish classroom. The Language Learning Journal, 47, 439459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conklin, K., & Pellicer-Sánchez, A. (2016). Using eye-tracking in applied linguistics and second language research. Second Language Research, 32, 453467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conklin, K., Pellicer-Sánchez, A., & Carrol, G. (2018). Eye-tracking: A guide for applied linguistics research. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danan, M. (1992). Reversed subtitling and dual coding theory: New directions for foreign language instruction. Language Learning, 42, 497527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danan, M. (2004). Captioning and subtitling: Undervalued language learning strategies. Meta, 49, 6777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeKeyser, R. (2007). Situating the concept of practice. In DeKeyser, R. (Ed.), Practicing in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp. 118). Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eastwood, J. (1994). Oxford guide to English grammar. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language teaching and learning. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ellis, R. (2009). Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19, 221246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, R. (2013). Task-based language teaching: Responding to the critics. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 8, 127.Google Scholar
Ellis, R., & Shintani, N. (2014). Exploring language pedagogy through second language acquisition research. Routledge.Google Scholar
Gabriele, A. (2009). Transfer and transition in the SLA of aspect. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31, 371402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garza, T. J. (1991). Evaluating the use of captioned video materials in advanced foreign language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 24, 239258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gass, S. M., Spinner, P., & Behney, J. (2017). Salience in second language acquisition and related field. In Gass, S., Spinner, P. & Behney, J. (Eds.), Salience in second language acquisition (pp. 118). Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfroid, A. (2019). Investigating instructed second language acquisition using L2 learners’ eye-tracking data. In Leow, R. P. (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of second language research in classroom learning. Routledge.Google Scholar
Godfroid, A., Boers, F., & Housen, A. (2013). An eye for words: Gauging the role of attention in incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition by means of eye-tracking. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 483517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfroid, A., & Uggen, M. S. (2013). Attention to irregular verbs by beginning learners of German. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 291322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grabe, W. (2012). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Han, J., & Hong, S. (2015). The acquisition problem of English present perfect to Korean adult learners of English: L1 transfer matters. English Language and Linguistics, 213, 141164.Google Scholar
Han, Z., Park, E. S., & Combs, C. (2008). Textual enhancement of input: Issues and possibilities. Applied Linguistics, 29, 597618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, H., & Eskey, D. (2000). The effects of closed-captioned television on the listening comprehension of intermediate English as second language students. Educational Technology Systems, 28, 7596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Indrarathne, B., & Kormos, J. (2017). Attentional processing of input in explicit and implicit learning conditions: An eye-tracking study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39, 401430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Issa, B., & Morgan-Short, K. (2019). Effects of external and internal attentional manipulations on second language grammar development: An eye-tracking study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41, 389417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Issa, B., Morgan-Short, K., Villegas, B., & Raney, G. (2015). An eye-tracking study on the role of attention and its relationship with motivation. EUROSLA Yearbook, 15, 114142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jung, J., & Révész, A. (2018). The effects of reading activity characteristics on L2 reading processes and noticing of glossed constructions. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40, 755780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1976). Eye fixations and cognitive processes. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 441480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, M., & Révész, A. (2018). Promoting grammatical development through textually enhanced captions: An eye-tracking study. The Modern Language Journal, 102, 557577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, S. K., & Huang, H. T. (2006). Visual input enhancement and grammar learning: A meta-analytic review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30, 307331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leow, R. (2015). Explicit learning in the L2 classroom: A student-centered approach. Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leow, R., & Martin, A. (2017). Enhancing the input to promote salience of the L2: A critical overview. In Gass, S., Spinner, P., & Behney, J. (Eds.), Salience in SLA (pp. 167186). Routledge.Google Scholar
Lightbown, P. M. (2008). Transfer appropriate processing as a model for classroom second language acquisition. In Han, Z. (Ed.), Understanding second language process (pp. 2744). Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Lindgren, E., & Muñoz, C. (2013). The influence of exposure, parents, and linguistic distance on young European learners’ foreign language comprehension. International Journal of Multilingualism, 10, 105129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loewen, L., & Inceoglu, S. (2016). The effectiveness of visual input enhancement on the noticing and L2 development of the Spanish past tense. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6, 89110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Long, M. H. (2000). Focus on form in task-based language teaching. In Lambert, R. D. & Shohamy, E. (Eds.), Language policy and pedagogy: Essays in honor of A. Ronald Walton (pp. 179192). Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markham, P. (1999). Captioned videotapes and second-language listening word recognition. Foreign Language Annals, 32, 321328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markham, P., Peter, L., & McCarthy, T. (2001). The effects of native language vs. target language captions on foreign language students’ DVD video comprehension. Foreign Language Annals, 34, 439445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montero Perez, M., Peters, E., Clarebout, G., & Desmet, P. (2014). Effects of captioning on video comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning. Language, Learning & Technology, 18, 118141.Google Scholar
Montero Perez, M., Peters, E., & Desmet, P. (2015). Enhancing vocabulary learning through captioned video: An eye‐tracking study. The Modern Language Journal, 99, 308328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montero Perez, M., Van Den Noortgate, W., & Desmet, P. (2013). Captioned video for L2 listening and vocabulary learning: A meta-analysis. System, 41, 720739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, E. S. (2004). Constraints of implicit focus on form: Insights from a study of input enhancement. Teachers College, Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL and Applied Linguistics, 4, 130.Google Scholar
Pica, T. (1983). Methods of morpheme quantification: Their effect on the interpretation of second language data. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 6, 6978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64, 878912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A contemporary grammar of the English language. Longman.Google Scholar
R Development Core Team (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/.Google Scholar
Raney, G. E., Campbell, S. J., & Bovee, J. C. (2014). Using eye movements to evaluate the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension. Journal of Visual Experimentation, 83, e50780.Google Scholar
Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodgers, M. P. H., & Webb, S. (2017). The effects of captions on EFL learners’ comprehension of English language television programs. CALICO Journal, 32, 2038.Google Scholar
Rost, M. (2011). Teaching and researching listening. Longman.Google Scholar
Samuda, V., & Bygate, M. (2008). Tasks in second language learning. Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharwood Smith, M. (1991). Speaking to many minds: On the relevance of different types of language information for the L2 learners. Second Language Research, 7, 118132.Google Scholar
Sharwood Smith, M. (1993). Input enhancement in instructed SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 165179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shintani, N. (2012). Input-based tasks and the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar: A process-product study. Language Teaching Research, 16, 253279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shintani, N. (2016). Input-based tasks in foreign language instruction for young learners. John Benjamins Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simard, D., & Foucambert, D. (2013). Observing noticing while reading in L2. In Bergsleithner, J. M., Frota, S. N. & Yoshioka, J. K. (Eds.), Noticing and second language acquisition: Studies in honor of Richard Schmidt (pp. 207226). National Foreign Language Resource Center, University of Hawaii at Mānoa.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sydorenko, T. (2010). Modality of input and vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning & Technology, 14, 5073.Google Scholar
Vandergrift, L. (2007). Recent developments in second and foreign language listening comprehension research. Language Teaching, 40, 191210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vanderplank, R. (1988). The value of teletext sub-titles in language learning. ELT Journal, 42, 272281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winke, P. (2013). The effects of input enhancement on grammar learning and comprehension: A modified replication of Lee (2007) with eye-movement data. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 323352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winke, P., Gass, S., & Sydorenko, T. (2010). The effects of captioning videos used for foreign language listening activities. Language Learning & Technology, 14, 6586.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Lee and Révész Supplementary Materials

Lee and Révész Supplementary Materials

Download Lee and Révész Supplementary Materials(File)
File 115.4 KB