Lancelot Andrewes at Holyrood: The 1617 Whitsun Sermon in Perspective
Published online by Cambridge University Press: 30 January 2009
Early in March 1617, King James followed what he himself described as a ‘salmon-like instinct’ and made his first (and last) return visit to his native Scotland since his departure fourteen years previously on the death of Queen Elizabeth. The occasion was the fiftieth anniversary of his coronation, at the age of fifteen months, as James VI of the northern kingdom. Among the events in Edinburgh to celebrate the visit was the Whitsun eucharist in the Chapel Royal at Holyrood Palace. The sermon was delivered by the King's favourite preacher, Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Ely.
- Research Article
- Copyright © Scottish Journal of Theology Ltd 1999
page 455 note 1 See The History of the Kirk of Scotland by Mr David Calderwood (edited by Thomson, Thomas) (Vol.VII), (Edinburgh: Woodrow Society, 1845) pp. 243 ff.Google Scholar (pp. 246 f., for a factual account of the Whitsun service, with no mention of Andrewes' part in it); and History of the Church of Scotland by the Rt Revd John Spottiswoode (edited by the Rt Revd Russell, M) (Vol.III) (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1851) pp. 238ff.Google Scholar For further accounts of this trip, see Welsby, Paul, Lancelot Andrewes (1555–1626) (London: S.P.C.K, 1958), pp 215 ffGoogle Scholar; Ottley, Robert, Lancelot Andrewes (London: Methuen, 1894), pp 76 ffGoogle Scholar; Sprott, George, Scottish Liturgies of the Reign of James VI (Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1871), pp. xxiv ffGoogle Scholar; Snow, W.G. Sinclair, The Times, Life and Thought of Patrick Forbes, Bishop of Aberdeen, (1618–1635) (Church Historical Society) (London: S.P.C.K, 1952) pp. 55Google Scholar and McCullough, Peter E, Sermons at Court: Politics and Religion in Elizabethan and Jacobean Preaching (Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History) (Cambridge: University Press, 1998)Google Scholar. See also Lynch, Michael, Scotland: A New History (London: Century, 1991).Google Scholar
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page 459 note 6 Wordsworth, Christopher (ed.), The Manner of the Coronation of King Charles the First (Henry Bradshaw Society II) (London, 1892), pp. 110Google Scholar, 111, 112, 131, 133, 134 for references to Andrewes' place in the service in relation to the King.
page 459 note 8 Mitchell, Leonel, ‘Episcopal Ordinations in the Church of Scotland, 1610–1688’, in Historical Magazine of the Episcopal Church 31 (1962), pp. 143 f.Google Scholar (For whole article see pp. 143–159.) See also Spottiswoode's, Archbishop John account in his History of the Church of Scotland (London: Royston, 1655), pp. 514 ff.Google Scholar
page 460 note 9 Richard Hooker, Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity V; see also Stevenson, , Covenant of Grace Renewed, pp. 19–38.Google Scholar
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page 461 note 12 The other texts for the Whitsun Sermons are, I (1606) Ac.2: 1–4 (preached at Greenwich); II (1608) Ac.l:4 (at Greenwich); III (1610) Jn.14:15–16 (at Whitehall); IV(1611) Jn 16:17 (at Windsor); V (1612) Ac 19:1–3 (at Whitehall); VI (1613) Eph.4:30 (at Whitehall); VII (1614) Ps.68:18 (at Greenwich); VIII (1615) Lk.3:21–22 (at Greenwich); IX (1616) Jn.20:22 (at Greenwich); XI (1618) Ac.2:16–21 (at Greenwich); XII (1619) Ac.lO:34–35 (at Greenwich);XII (1620) IJn.5:6 (at Whitehall); XIV (1621) Ja.l:16–17(at Greenwich);XVI.Cor.12:4–7(Prepared but never delivered through illness).
page 462 note 13 See, for example, the 1600 Sermon on Absolution, ‘To the Service of Ministry of which Divine work a Commission is here granted to the Apostles. And first, they have here their sending from the God the Father, their inspiring from God the Holy Ghost, their Commission from God the Son; that being thus sent from the Father, by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the person of Christ, they may perform the office or, as the Apostle calleth it, the embassage of reconciling sinners unto God, to which they are appointed’, The Sermons of Lancelot Andrewes V, p. 84; Whitsun 8 (1615) Sermon, ‘the Son in the water, the Holy Ghost in the dove, the Father in the voice’, The Sermons of Lancelot Andmues III, p. 675; and the Whitsun 14 (1621) Sermon, ‘the Father, the Fountain; the Son, the Cistern; the Holy Ghost, the Conduit-pipe, or pipes, rather (for they are many) by and through which they are derived down to us’, Ibid., p. 362.
page 462 note 14 Andrewes attributes this quotation to Basil of Caesarea, and, although it expresses Basil's thought, particularly in the De Spiritu Sancto, it is nowhere to be found. However, Dr Lionel Wickham has suggested to me that it might come from Gregory Nazianzus, Or. Theol III, 20, ‘he was baptised as a man, but as God, he was free of sin’.Preacher's memories—and commonplace books—are sometimes faulty, as are editors.
page 462 note 15 See, The Sermons of Lancelot Andrewes III, p. 261.
page 462 note 16 See, for example, Talley, Thomas J., The Origins of the Liturgical Year (New York: Pueblo, 1986), pp. 117–128.Google Scholar
page 463 note 17 See Brightman, F.E., The Preces Privatae of Lancelot Andrewes Bishop of Winchester (London: Methuen, 1903).Google Scholar
page 466 note 19 Brightman, F.E., The Preces Privatae, p. 65Google Scholar, lines 23–27, ‘I have sinned, but I am ashamed, and I turn from my wicked ways, and I return unto my heart, and with all my heart I turn unto thee, and seek thy face’. See also Stevenson, , Handing On, pp. 25 ff, and p. 80.Google Scholar
page 466 note 20 See above n.5.
page 466 note 21 Brightman, , Preces Privatae, p. 70Google Scholar lines 31–33, ‘unto pardon, reconciliation, repropitiation’, and Stevenson Handing On, p. 80.
page 468 note 22 Hooker, Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity V 54.1 and 6. The reference is Theodoret, Dialogue III 4; See also Hooker, Richard, Of The Law of Ecclesiastical Polity: Introductions; Commentary (Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies) (New York: Binghampton 1993) pp. 724 f.Google Scholar For an important discussion of ‘the grace of unction’ in relation to Christology, see Loyer, Olivier, L' Anglicanisme de Richard Hooker, I: (Thèse préséntee devant l'universitedé Paris III—1.Juin 1997) (Paris: Champion, 1979), pp. 479–483Google Scholar. On deification, see Allchin, A.M., Participation in God: A forgotten Strand in Anglican Thought (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1988), esp. pp. 7–23Google Scholar (Hooker and Andrewes).
page 468 note 23 Brightman, , The Preces Privatae, p. 93Google Scholar, lines 11–21, ‘be unto me, O Lord, always thy mighty hand for defence; thy mercy in Christ for salvation; thine all true word for instruction; the grace of thy life bringing one word Spirit for comfort until the end and in the end’ (text), and p. 331 (suggested sources).
page 469 note 24 For discussion of the origin and development of these texts, see Bradshaw, Paul, The Anglican Ordinal (Alcuin Club Collections 53) (London: S.P. C.K. 1971), pp. 55–57.Google Scholar
page 470 note 27 The Sermons of Lancelot Andrewes III, p. 227.
page 472 note 29 See quotation from Aubrey's, Lives of Eminent Men, quoted in Lancelot Andrewes' Minor Works (Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology) (Oxford: Parker, 1854), p. ixixGoogle Scholar. Other versions of this tale are quoted in Higham, F., Lancelot Andrews (London: S.C.M., 1952), p. 75Google Scholar; and Davies, Horton, Worship and Theology in England from Andrewes to Baxter and Fox, 1603–1690 (Princeton: University Press, 1975), p. 147.Google Scholar
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page 472 note 31 The first edition appeared in 1629 (see above n.10); second edition in 1631, the third in 1635, and the fourth in 1641.
page 473 note 33 See J. B. Mozley, ‘Sermons of Lancelot Andrewes, Sometime Lord Bishop of Winchester’, The British Critic and Quarterly Theological Review, 31:61 (Londonjan.1842), pp. 169–205; an oft-quoted passage is as follows: ‘he is so quick and varied, so dexterous and rich in his combinations; he brings facts, types, prophecies, and doctrines together with such rapidity; groups, arranges, systematizes, sets and re-sets them with such readiness and multiplicity of movement, that he seems to have a kind of ubiquity, and to be everywhere and in every part of the system at the same time’, p. 173.
page 473 note 34 See Eliot, T.S., For Lancelot Andrewes; Essays on Style and Order (London: Faber, 1928), pp. 11–26Google Scholar; an oft-quoted judgement is as follows: ‘Andrewes’ emotion is purely contemplative; it is not personal, it is wholly evoked by the subject of contemplation to which it is adequate; his emotion is wholly contained in and explained by its object.’ (p. 24). See also Hewson, P. E., Select Writings of Lancelot Andrewes (Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995).Google Scholar
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page 474 note 37 Brightman, , The Preces Privatae, ‘The devotions are in fact an abstract of the sermons, the sermons a development and expansion of the devotions’, p. li.Google Scholar
page 474 note 38 For example in McAdoo, H.R., The Eucharist Theology of Jeremy Taylor Today (Norwich: Canterbury Press, 1988).Google Scholar
page 474 note 39 See Lossky, , Lancelot Andrewes the Preacher, p. 345Google Scholar. This article began life as a sermon delivered in Winchester Cathedral on 1st February 1995, on the occasion of the blessing of a commemorative plaque to Lancelot Andrewes; I am grateful to Bishop Colin James and Dean Trevor Beeson for their kind invitation.