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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 August 2009
In one of his New Yorker short stories, Donald Barthelme introduced a character named Francesca, a young woman who was a Robert E. Lee freak. Whenever she was with Thomas, the protagonist of the story, Francesca babbled on endlessly about Lee's Lost Order No. 191, or the tactics of Pickett's Charge, or the Confederate government's failure to resupply Lee's army at Amelia Court House. Even Francesca's eyes were Confederate-gray, reflecting “a lifelong contemplation of the nobility of Lee's great horse, Traveller.” However, as the anomie which usually engulfs Barthelme's characters overtook her, Francesca was finally forced to admit that “ ‘Lee was not without his faults.… Not for a moment would I have you believe that he was faultless.’ ” Thomas roused himself to ask, “ ‘What was his principal fault?’ ” To that, Francesca offered a one-word reply: “ ‘Losing,’ she said.”
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2 See Donald, David, ed., Why the North Won the Civil War (Baton Rouge, 1960)Google Scholar, for a representative collection of essays.
4 For example, the theme of legitimacy pervades Davis, Jefferson, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (New York, 1881), 2 volsGoogle Scholar.
5 Thomas, Emory, The Confederacy as a Revolutionary Experience (Englewood Cliffs, 1971), pp. 23–42Google Scholar. Also, among others, Wooster, Ralph A., The Secession Conventions of the South (Princeton, 1962)Google Scholar; Alexander, Thomas B. and Beringer, Richard E., The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress (Nashville, 1972)Google Scholar; Yearns, Wilfred Buck, The Confederate Congress (Athens, 1960)Google Scholar; Hendrick, Burton J., Statesmen of the Lost Cause (New York, 1939)Google Scholar; Potter, David M., The South and Sectional Conflict (Baton Rouge, 1968), p. 11Google Scholar; Kirwin, Albert D., ed., The Civilization of the Old South: Writings of Clement Eaton (Lexington, 1968)Google Scholar.
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14 For example, William Graham Sumner defined war as “a public armed contest between nations under the sanction of international law, to establish justice between them.” Outlook, Jan. 5, 1901, p. 10. Similar assumptions underlie such modern commentaries on war as Knorr, Klaus, Military Power and Potential (Lexington, 1970), pp. 1–2Google Scholar.
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30 Eisenschiml, Otto, The Hidden Face of the Civil War (Indianapolis, 1961)Google Scholar; Davis, , The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, II, 679Google Scholar, 696; and almost any current biography of a Confederate general other than Lee or Jackson. For the debate about Connelly's view of Lee, see Connelly, Thomas L., “Robert E. Lee and the Western Confederacy: A Criticism of Lee's Strategic Ability,” Civil War History, XV (1969), 132Google Scholar and passim; Castel, Albert, “The Historian and the General: Thomas L. Connelly versus Robert E. Lee,” Civil War History, XVII (1970), 50–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lemal's, Richard F. “Communication,” Civil War History, XVII (1971), 171–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Lemal's essay is especially pertinent.
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34 See the documentary evidence collected in Ingraham, Edward D., A Sketch of the Events Which Preceded the Capture of Washington, by the British, on the Twenty-Fourth of August, 1814 (Philadelphia, 1849), pp. 41–57Google Scholar, 60, 6 4; American State Papers (Washington, 1832–1861)Google Scholar, Class V, Military Affairs, Vol. I, 524–99.
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39 Ibid.; Black, Robert C. III, The Railroads of the Confederacy (Chapel Hill, 1952)Google Scholar; Rowland, , Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, VI, 387Google Scholar; Davis, , The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, II, 679Google Scholar, 696, and passim; Kerby, Robert L., Kirby Smith's Confederacy: The Trans-Mississippi South, 1863–1865 (New York, 1972), pp. 79–80Google Scholar, 382–83; O. R., Ser. IV, Vol. Ill, 89–90; Judah Benjamin to John Slidell, March 24, May 20, 1863, John T. Pickett Papers, Library of Congress.
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42 It can be argued that the Confederate leadership was incapable of knowing what their country's revolutionary heritage was. Compare the usual elitist images of the Revolution with Lemisch, Jesse, “The American Revolution Seen from the Bottom Up,” in Bernstein, Barton J., ed., Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History (New York, 1967)Google Scholar; Wood, Gordon S., “A Note on Mobs in the American Revolution,” William and Mary Quarterly, XXIII (1966), 635–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lemisch, Jesse, “Jack Tar in the Streets: Merchant Seamen in the Politics of Revolutionary America,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., XXV (1968), 371–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Barrow, Thomas C., “The American Revolution as a Colonial War for Independence,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., XXV (1968), 452–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
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47 Address to the People of Augusta, Georgia, Oct. 5, 1864, in the Richmond Dispatch, Oct. 10, 1864.
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