Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-564cf476b6-pxp6n Total loading time: 0.22 Render date: 2021-06-21T11:18:45.066Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Approaches to the Comparative Analysis of Political Leadership

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 August 2009

Abstract

This article opens with some general observations on outstanding features of the current literature on political leadership, especially in the United States. It then deals briefly with conceptual problems, level of analysis issues, and counter-factual questions. This is followed by a consideration of major modes of analysis for the comparative study of political leadership. The concluding section points up the principal ways to making comparative generalization about the sources and nature of leadership in politics.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © University of Notre Dame 1990

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1. Jackson, Robert H. and Rosberg, Carl G., Personal Rule in Black Africa (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982), p. 7.Google Scholar

2. Graumann, Carl F. and Moscovici, Serge, eds., Changing Conceptions of Leadership (New York and Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1986), p. 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

3. See Bass, Bernard M., ed., Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership (New York: Free Press, 1981).Google Scholar

4. For example, Fiske, Susan T. and Taylor, Shelley E., Social Cognition (Reading, MA: 1984);Google Scholar and Nisbett, Richard and Ross, Less, Human Inference (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980).Google Scholar

5. Compare, for example, the articles in Kellerman, Barbara, Leadership: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1984) with those in Graumann and Moscovici, Changing Conceptions of Leadership.Google Scholar

6. See my “Introduction” to Edinger, Lewis J., ed., Political Leadership in Industrial Societies (New York: Wiley, 1967).Google Scholar

7. See, for example, the preference for “systemic” over “reductionist” explanations in Waltz, Kenneth, Theories of International Politics (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1979).Google Scholar

8. See, for example, Maier, Charles S., Recasting Bourgeois Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975);Google Scholar and Skocpol, Thea, States and Social Revolutions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

9. See, for example, Farnetti, Paolo, “Social Conflict, Parliamentary Institutional Shift, and the Rise of Fascism: Italy,” in The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Europe, ed. Linz, Juan J. and Stepan, Alfred (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press; 1978), pp. 333;Google ScholarBialer, Seweryn, Stalin's Successors (London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980);Google ScholarBreslauer, George M., Khrushchev and Brezhnev as Leaders (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1982);Google Scholar and, with particular reference to innovations by “new” leaders in Western and Communist systems, Bunce, Valerie, Do New Leaders Make a Difference? (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

10. Like others who have dealt with this issue, my discussion of it here and elsewhere is greatly indebted to Max Weber's seminal work. See, in particular, his “Objective Possibility and Adequate Causation in Historical Explanation,” in The Methodology of the Social Sciences (New York, 1949), pp. 164–88.Google Scholar I would like to thank Prof. Harvey Goldman for calling my attention to a republication of the original German version in Weber, Max, Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Wissenschaftslehre (Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1969).Google Scholar

11. See, for example, Hargrove, Erwin C. and Nelson, Michael, Presidents, Politics and Policy (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984).Google Scholar

12. Pious, Richard M., The American Presidency (New York: The Free Press, 1979), p.16.Google Scholar

13. Page, Benjamin I. and Petracca, Mark P., The American Presidency (New York: McGraw Hill, 1983), p.383.Google Scholar

14. Seligman, Lester, “Leadership: Political Aspects,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. Sills, David (New York: Macmillan, 1968), vol. 9, pp. 107113;Google ScholarRose, Richard and Suleiman, Ezra N., eds., Presidents and Prime Ministers (Washington: American Enterprise Institute, 1980).Google Scholar

15. See, for example, the essays by Wildavsky, , Peppers, , and Henkin, in Wildavski, Aron, ed., Perspectives on the Presidency (Boston: Litde, Brown, 1975), pp. 448–86,Google Scholar as well as Pious, American Presidency; and Cronin, Thomas E., The State of the Presidency, 2d. ed. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1980).Google Scholar

16. Wriggins, Howard, The Ruler's Imperative (New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1969), pp. 222–27.Google Scholar

17. Jackson, and Rosberg, , Personal Rule in Black Africa, p. 30.Google Scholar

18. For a good introduction see the essays on “Leadership and Public Choice,” in Leadership and Politics: New Perspectives in Political Science, ed. Jones, Bryan D. (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989).Google Scholar

19. For example, Sickles's, Robert J.Presidential Transactions (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), employs a rational choice model to establish and explain recurrent patterns of interaction between the American chief executive on the one hand and top bureaucrats, legislators, and other key actors on the other. See, also, essays and citations in Jones, Leadership and Politics, passim.Google Scholar

20. Frohlich, Norman, Oppenheimer, Joe A., and Young, Oran R., Political Leadership and Collective Goods (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971).Google Scholar

21. de Mesquita, Bruce Bueno, The War Trap (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1981), pp. 17, 2930.Google Scholar For instance, “Hitler's decision to start the war in 1939—neither sooner nor later” was in that sense “made in a manner consistent with the notion of expected utility maximalization” (p. 175).

22. See, for example, George, Alexander L. and George, Juliette L., Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House (New York: Dover, 1964);Google ScholarTucker, Robert C., Stalin as a Revolutionary (New York: Norton, 1973);Google ScholarWaite, Robert G., The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (New York: Basic Books, 1977).Google Scholar

23. Edinger, Lewis J., Kurt Schumacher: A Study in Personality and Leadership (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965).Google Scholar

24. See, for example, Paige, Glenn, The Scientific Study of Political Leadership (New York: The Free Press, 1977).Google Scholar

25. Most notably—following in the footsteps of Barber, Harold D. Lasswell—James, The Presidential Character, 3d. ed.(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1985).Google Scholar These days “psychological studies are probably the most widely criticized writings on the presidency. A fundamental problem is that they often display a strong tendency toward being reductionist, that is, they concentrate on personality to the exclusion of most other behavioral influences” (Edwards, George C. III, “Studying the Presidency,” in The Presidency and the Political System, ed. Nelson, Michael [Washington: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1984], p. 34).Google Scholar

26. See Jones, Bryan D., “Leader/Follower Interactions in Mass Democracies: Follower-Driven Models,” in Jones, Leadership and Politics, pp. 4156.Google Scholar

27. See, for example, Cavalli, Luciano, “Charismatic Domination, Totalitarian Dictatorship and Plebiscitary Democracy,” in Changing Conceptions of Leadership, ed. Graumann, Carl F. and Moscovici, Serge (New York: Springer, 1986);Google ScholarDettman, Paul R., “Leaders and Structures in ‘Third World’ Politics,” Comparative Politics 6 (1974): 245–69;Google ScholarDownton, J., Rebel Leadership (New York: The Free Press, 1973), pp. 73109, 209240;Google ScholarRajai, Mustafa, with Phillips, Kay, Leaders of Revolution, (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1979).Google Scholar

28. Notably, , Jervis, Robert, Perceptions and Misperceptions in International Politics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976).Google Scholar

29. Fiske, Susan T. and Taylor, Shelley E., Social Cognition (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984), p. 397.Google Scholar

30. Nisbett, Richard and Ross, Less, Human Inference (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980), p. 11.Google Scholar

31. In some usages the term political culture encompasses political behavior as well as attitudes, in others it also takes in supposedly underlying cultural patterns.

32. Jackson and Rosberg, Personal Rule in Black Africa.

33. Almond, Gabriel A., Flanagan, Scott, and Mundt, Robert, eds., Crisis, Choice, and Change (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), p. 18.Google Scholar

34. Hargrove and Nelson, Presidents, Politics and Policy; Kellerman, Barbara, The Political Presidency (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984).Google Scholar

35. Almond, , Flanagan, , AND Mundt, , Crisis, Choice and Change, p. 638.Google Scholar A culturally more deep-seated theory of political leadership is outlined by Wildavsky, in Jones, , Leadership and Politics, pp.97113.Google Scholar

36. Almond, , Flanagan, , AND Mundt, , Crisis, Choice and Change, p. 321.Google Scholar

37. Neustadt, Richard E., Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership, rev. ed. (New York: Wiley, 1980).Google Scholar

38. Burns, , Roosevelt, the Lion and the Fox, 1982–1940 (New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1956).Google Scholar

39. Hargrove, and Nelson, , Presidents, Politics and Policy, pp. 126, 197.Google Scholar

40. Burg, Steven L.Elite Conflict in Post-Tito Yugoslavia,” Soviet Studies 19 (1986).Google Scholar

41. Susan, and Purcell, John, “State and Society in Mexico,” World Politics 26 (1980): 2854.Google Scholar

42. Davis, Nathaniel, The Last Years of Salvador Allende (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985).Google Scholar

43. See, for example, Hopkins, R. F., “Securing Authority,” World Politics 24 (1972): 271–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

44. Breslauer, Khrushev and Brezhnev as Leaders.

45. Jackson, and Rosberg, , Personal Rule in Black Africa, p. 121 and passim.Google Scholar

46. See Rose, Richard in Rose, and Suleiman, , Presidents and Prime Ministers, p. 44.Google Scholar In this connection, see also Heady, E. W., “The Role Skills of Cabinet Ministers” in Political Studies, March 1974, p. 67.Google Scholar

47. See Seligman, , “Leadership: Political Aspects,” pp. 108109.Google Scholar

48. Almond, , Flanagan, , AND Mundt, , Crisis, Choice and Change, p. 18.Google Scholar

49. Grainger, J.H., Character and Style in British Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), p. 7.Google Scholar

18
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Approaches to the Comparative Analysis of Political Leadership
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Approaches to the Comparative Analysis of Political Leadership
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Approaches to the Comparative Analysis of Political Leadership
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *